Scientists Say Their Giant Laser Has Produced Nuclear Fusion

The National Ignition Facility's 192 laser beams focus onto a tiny target.

The National Ignition Facility’s 192 laser beams focus onto a tiny target.

LLNL

Researchers at a laboratory in California say they’ve had a breakthrough in producing fusion reactions with a giant laser. The success comes after years of struggling to get the laser to work and is another step in the decades-long quest for fusion energy.

Omar Hurricane, a researcher at , says that for the first time, they’ve produced significant amounts of fusion by zapping a target with their laser. “We’ve gotten more energy out of the fusion fuel than we put into the fusion fuel,” he says.

Strictly speaking, while more energy came from fusion than went into the hydrogen fuel, only about 1 percent of the laser’s energy ever reached the fuel. Useful levels of fusion are still a long way off. “They didn’t get more fusion power out than they put in with the laser,” says , the head of a huge fusion experiment in the U.K. called the , or JET.

The laser is known as the , or NIF. Constructed at a cost of more than $3 billion, it consists of 192 beams that take up the length of three football fields. For a brief moment, the beams can focus 500 trillion watts of power — more power than is being used in that same time across the entire United States — onto a target about the width of a No. 2 pencil.

The goal is fusion: a process where hydrogen atoms are squeezed together to make helium atoms. When that happens, a lot of energy comes out. It could mean the answer to the world’s energy problems, but fusion is really, really hard to do. Hurricane says that each time they try, it feels like they’re taking a test.

Inside a capsule the width of a No. 2 pencil sits a tiny ball of hydrogen fuel. The lasers squeeze the fuel until it fuses, releasing energy.

Inside a capsule the width of a No. 2 pencil sits a tiny ball of hydrogen fuel. The lasers squeeze the fuel until it fuses, releasing energy.

E. Dewald/LLNL

“Of course you want to score real well, you think you’ve learned the material, but you just have to see how you do,” he says.

Over the past few years, For all its power, it just couldn’t get the hydrogen to fuse, and researchers didn’t know why. The failures have led NIF’s critics to label the facility an enormous waste of taxpayer dollars. In 2012, the government shifted NIF away from its fusion goals to focus on its other mission: .

But the fusion experiments continued, and Hurricane says researchers now understand why their original strategy wasn’t working. In the journal Nature, that they’ve finally figured out how to squeeze the fuel with the lasers. By doing a lot of squeezing right at the start, they were able to keep the fuel from churning and squirting out. The lasers squeezed evenly and the hydrogen turned into helium.

The new technique can’t reach “ignition,” which is the point at which the hydrogen fusion feeds on itself to make more. Even so, JET’s Cowley says, this is still a big moment for NIF.

“I think it’s still a very important step forward, they reached fusion conditions, they made some fusion happen, and that’s not been done before [with a laser],” he says.

Hurricane says no one knows for sure whether NIF can really reach the point of ignition. “It’s not up to me; it’s up to Mother Nature,” he says. “But we’re certainly going to try.”

When physicists first split the atom in 1938, in the process known as nuclear fission, the feat led very quickly to the bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki and ended World War II. A mere decade or so later this destructive force had been tamed to power the first commercial nuclear power plants. In the late 1940’s, meanwhile, physicists forced atoms to combine against their will to create hydrogen bombs in what’s called nuclear fusion, and they thought they could follow up in the civilian sector. Fusion power planets, scientists predicted in the 1950’s, might be right around the corner.

That was just a tad optimistic. Controlled fusion—which amounts to taming the same awesome force that powers the Sun—has turned out to be much more difficult and more expensive than anyone guessed, and more than a half-century on nobody’s achieved it. Yet as a new paper just published in Nature makes clear, they haven’t given up. By focusing 192 powerful lasers on a tiny sphere encasing 170 millionths of a gram of hydrogen, scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory forced atomic nuclei to combine, releasing a whopping 17 kilojoules of energy. “It is not surprising,” writes physicist Mark Herrmann of Sandia National Laboratories in an accompanying Nature commentary, “that fusion scientists throughout the world are cheering.”

(MORE: Europe-based Fusion Project Draws Heat Over Funding)

This might sound a bit over the top when you consider how little hydrogen was involved, and how little power it actually released: 17 kilojoules represents the amount of solar energy that falls on a sq. yard (0.83 sq. m) of Earth (more or less) in full daylight over 17 seconds—and this fusion reaction lasted more like .0000000001 second.

“It sounds very modest,” admitted lead scientist Omar Hurricane at a press briefing. “And it is. But it’s closer than anyone’s ever gotten to ignition”—that is, the self-sustaining process where the fusion reaction can keep going on its own.

The reaction itself is simple: atomic nuclei carry a positive charge, so they try to repel each other. If you can overcome that repulsion and let them crash together and fuse, they release a burst of energy. And the way you do that, says Hurricane, is “you get them running toward each other at high velocity.”

Inside the Sun, that’s no problem. That high velocity comes from the 27-million-degree temperatures at the Sun’s core, which keep nuclei moving with enormous energy. Under other circumstances, most of the nuclei would just escape without colliding. But the enormous pressures created by the Sun’s gravity keep them confined indefinitely. Sooner or later, they crash.

It’s no problem in an H-bomb either: hydrogen fuel is heated and compressed by an old-fashioned atomic bomb. The compression doesn’t last long, but the energy released in a fraction of a second is hundreds of times more powerful than an A-bomb. For a self-sustaining fusion reaction, you somehow need to get hydrogen very hot and keep it from escaping. That’s the tough part. One technique traps a gas of hydrogen atoms in a magnetic “bottle,” then heats the gas to millions of degrees with high-energy radio waves.

But the Livermore scientists have long focused on another method, known as inertial fusion. They bombard a spherical capsule of hydrogen with lasers from all directions, vaporizing the container itself and driving the hydrogen inward. “We need to compress the capsule by a factor of 35,” says Livermore physicist and co-author Debbie Callahan. The capsule itself is a fraction of an inch across, but the compression, she says, “is equivalent to compressing a basketball to the size of a pea.”

When that happens, the temperature shoots sky-high, the pressure reaches 150 billion times atmospheric pressure on Earth, and the hydrogen—more precisely, it’s a mixture of deuterium and tritium, which are heavier varieties of hydrogen—begins to fuse. “It’s quite ferocious,” says Hurricane.

It will have to get a lot more ferocious to deliver usable power, which would presumably come from blasting one capsule after another in unbroken succession. How long it will take to make a commercial reactor, says Hurricane, “is anybody’s guess. We’re working like mad, but this is research—it’s not a power plant, not a reactor.”

The same can be said for the magnetic confinement technique, whose most advanced experiment, the Joint European Torus (JET), briefly produced 16 megawatts of fusion energy back in 1997. That reaction wasn’t self-sustaining either, and the technical barriers to making this kind of fusion work are no less daunting than those the Livermore scientists face.

But don’t tell the scientists that. “We’ve waited 60 years to get close to controlled fusion, and we are now close in both magnetic and inertial,” says Steven Cowley, director of the Culham Center for Nuclear Energy, in England, where JET is located. “We must keep at it.”

The gold cylinder where fusion reactions take place at NIF. Image: NIFScientists with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory announced today that they have achieved a critical step in fusion research: For the first time, their hydrogen fuel has given off more energy than it took in.

Though an important milestone, the result does not mean that your Delorean is soon going to sport a Mr. Fusion reactor. NIF would need to sustain temperatures and pressures much greater than they are currently capable of before they can harness fusion energy.

Nuclear fusion is the energy source of the stars. Deep in our sun’s belly, hydrogen atoms slam into one another at high speed, getting mashed together to form helium atoms and releasing copious amounts of energy. Creating viable fusion energy here on Earth has been a dream since the dawn of the Atomic Age. With true fusion power, the amount of water you use in a single shower could provide all your energy needs for a year. But for six decades, fusion has remained a far-off dream.

To create fusion reactions at NIF, scientists shoot 192 lasers simultaneously with a peak power of 500 trillion Watts, roughly the energy the U.S. consumes every six minutes. This heats up a 1 centimeter gold cylinder to millions of degrees, producing X-rays that get focused at a plastic shell the size of a BB pellet. The X-rays blast the shell, creating an implosion that shrinks the gas inside pellet to 1/35th of its size, compressing isotopes of hydrogen known as deuterium and tritium to incredible densities. At the center of this hydrogen plasma, in an area smaller than the width of a human hair, the atoms fuse. This gives off energy, which should in theory set off a chain reaction that ignites the rest of the hydrogen and creates a self-sustaining ball of fusion.

Preamplifier_at_the_National_Ignition_Facility

Amplifiers to increase the laser power at NIF. Image: Damien Jemison/LLNL

Because of this convoluted process, only 1/200th of the energy that the lasers generate is imparted to the hydrogen fuel, compressing it enough to produce a small amount of fusion. Until now, the energy given off by the fusing hydrogen hasn’t been enough to set off a chain reaction. The hydrogen fuel also always consumed more energy than it put out. But during experiments late last year, NIF researchers were finally able to get the hydrogen to give off as much as 1.7 times more energy than it had taken in, a result that appears today in Nature. In subsequent experiments last month, the team was able to produce as much as 2.6 times more energy than was put into the hydrogen fuel.

“The physics is a breakthrough,” said physicist Riccardo Betti of the University of Rochester, who was not involved in the work. “If fusion will ever become a viable source of energy, we may look back and say that in 2013, for the first time, a plasma produced more energy out than it took in.”

But the dream of fusion energy isn’t yet a reality. “In terms of making energy to power the grid, it’s still light-years away,” Betti said.

 

NIF is a $3.5-billion facility that was built to study the dynamics of nuclear explosions for the National Nuclear Security Administration and to test the integrity of the country’s nuclear stockpile without exploding any bombs. After the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty, the U.S., Russia, and many other countries agreed to only test atomic bombs underground, and since 1992 the U.S. has placed a moratorium on any nuclear testing. But not being able to physically test the bombs “is like having a car that you’re studying but not allowed to start,” said Livermore Lab physicist Paul Springer, a co-author of the recent fusion results. NIF was the answer to this problem.

When NIF was first being built, researchers were confident that it would produce fusion reactions fairly quickly. The point when fusion becomes self-sustaining is known as ignition. The fusing hydrogen atoms at the fuel center send out helium nuclei, which knock into other hydrogen atoms, setting off a cascading chain-reaction of expansion fusion that should produce more energy than the entire experiment consumes. While ignition requires extremely high temperatures and pressures, computer simulations in 2009 predicted that NIF would achieve the energies to generate it by 2012. Of course, reality doesn’t work as well as a digital model, and the deadline passed without achieving ignition.

Laser_view_of_target_at_the_National_Ignition_Facility

A view inside the gold cylinder where hydrogen is compressed to incredible densities. Image: Lawrence Livermore National Security

Troubles came when scientists found it was extremely difficult to get their hydrogen fuel to compress in the right way. In order to generate the intense pressure and temperatures inside the hydrogen gas needed for fusion, the tiny pellet had to collapse perfectly symmetrically. But small instabilities appearing in the pellet meant that the plasma imploded unevenly, sending fingers of cold gas into the center that doused the fusion reactions.

Over the years, NIF scientists learned from their experiments. They studied the way that the pellet collapsed, and tweaked their designs. They also learned how to time their laser pulses to give the hydrogen the perfect kick. With this knowledge, researchers have been able to go back and improve their simulations, which are now in better agreement with what is physically seen in experiments.

But the latest achievements are still a long way from creating self-sustaining fusion reactions, which would require the hydrogen to reach temperatures of hundreds of millions of degrees and pressures a thousand times more than what is currently possible. The implosion continues to be more of an amorphous blob than a perfect spherical cave-in. To go forward, researchers will have to “make the collapse rounder and more stable against things that cause distortions,” said Springer.

Still, a future with fusion power is starting to look more possible. A European team is also attempting to generate fusion energy at the $20 billion International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) currently under construction in France. That facility will trap superheated hydrogen plasma in a donut-shaped magnetic chamber, an entirely different technique than what has been achieved at NIF, meaning that the lessons from the Livermore Lab won’t be entirely applicable. Rather than set unrealistic deadlines, ITER is moving forward at a very slow and steady pace.

In the meantime, the NIF team is happy with their achievements and cautiously optimistic of their future prospects. “We’ve all been extremely excited about the results that we’ve been getting,” said physicist Denise Hinkel of Livermore Lab, another co-author. “Many people have been waiting for something like this to happen.”

Scientist Grow Miniature, But Distincly Human, Brain In The Lab

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Austrian researchers have used regenerative techniques to grow a miniature human brain in the lab, they reported recently in the journal Nature.

This article was originally found on Singularity Hub!

The researchers started with pluripotent human stem cells, or stem cells that are capable of developing into various kinds of specialized cell. After letting them develop, they removed proto-neural cells and placed them on a scaffold. Using a bioreactor to improve cellular growing conditions, they obtained a brain-like organ that exhibited differentiated brain regions.

retina

The mini-brains developed into distinct regions, including a cerebral cortex, retina (pictured), meninges and choroid plexus. But they stopped growing after two months. The Austrian researchers, led by Jurgen Knoblich of the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, said that in the absence of a circulation system, the core of the mini-brains probably didn’t receive adequate nutrients or oxygen to continue growing.

So what would you want with a tiny lab-grown brain? Growing organs from stem cells is a hot field of research right now, with everything from teeth to hearts being grown in the lab. Most of those efforts aim eventually to use the organs as custom-made transplantorgans. Such a system would solve the serious shortage of some organs and reduce the chances of patients rejecting transplanted organs.

A brain transplant has, of course, never been performed — although an Italian researcher recently argued that such an operation would be possible, if bizarre. (The recipient of a transplanted brain would also receive the donor’s knowledge and personality.)

Instead, the Austrian researchers think that lab-grown mini-brains could help advance research into the brain and its disorders.

bioreactor-ed

Medical researchers urgently need better models for developmental brain diseases, because the animal models commonly used lack the structural complexity that characterizes human brains and therefore often do not adequately simulate human disease.

The IMBA team demonstrated that the mini-brains could offer such a model. They first produced induced pluripotent stem cells from the skin tissue of a patient with microcephaly. By developing a mini brain from these cells, the scientists were able to grow a mini brain that had the same problem. Microcephaly is characterized by an abnormally small brain, which causes potentially serious developmental problems.

Observing the microcephalic mini-brain led the researchers to hypothesize that the disorder occurs when neural differentiation happens too soon during brain development, stymieing stem and progenitor cells which would otherwise spur additional brain growth.

The hope is that mini-brains can be produced to model other brain disorders as well. They could also provide a means of testing new drugs to ensure that they don’t cause brain defects or other disorders.

Photos courtesy IMBA

This Device Cured Cancer But Big Pharma Destroyed It

Medical treatments today often involve the use of medications mostly made from various chemicals or chemical extractions from plants. It would be fair to say that modern pharmaceuticals don’t necessarily represent a natural treatment and they are very targeted in how they work. We have all seen the TV ads for pharmaceutical drugs that end with a long, quickly spoken list of side effects that can often be worse than the issue someone is treating to begin with. It is important to note that these aren’t really side effects but are instead the effects of the drug. We often don’t look at it this way, but when you do, you begin to realize the absurdity that goes along with many modern treatments for illness.

The technology this article will discuss takes a very different approach to treating the body. Royal Rife machines have been around for many years and it didn’t take long for them to be cast aside negatively by modern medicine when the results began pouring in.

royalrifeIt was in 1920 that Royal Rife first identified the human cancer virus using the world’s most powerful microscope. After identifying and isolating the virus, he decided to culture it on salted pork. At the time this was a very good method for culturing a virus. He then took the culture and injected it into 400 rats which as you might expect, created cancer in all 400 rats very quickly. The next step for Rife is where things took an interesting turn. He later found a frequency of electromagnetic energy that would cause the cancer virus to diminish completely when entered into the energy field. The great discovery led Rife to create a device that could be tuned to output the frequency that would destruct the cancer. He was then able to treat the cancer within both rats and patients who were within close proximity of the device.

By 1934, the device began getting much more attention. The University of Southern California appointed a Special Medical Research Committee to further look at and study the device and it’s claims. 16 terminal cancer patients from Pasadena County Hospital were brought to Rife’s San Diego Laboratory for treatment. This committee was made up of doctors and pathologists who were assigned to examine the patients if they were still alive in 90 days. The 3 months of treatment went by and the Committee concluded that 14 of the 16 patients had been completely cured of cancer. The remaining 2 patients were exposed to the device for another 4 weeks after a few adjustments were made. Both were cured after the 4 weeks. The amazing results were a surprise to many, as no one knew what to expect out of frequency based medical treatment. On November 20, 1931, Royal Rife was honored with a banquet billed as “The End To All Diseases” at the Pasadena estate of Dr. Milbank Johnson by 44 of the nations most respected medical authorities.

The device began receiving flack in 1939 and almost all distinguished doctors and scientists close to the device began  denying that they had ever met Rife and saw results with his device. The complete reversal was due to pressure from drug companies who were being threatened by the device’s potential. Interestingly, on the night of the press conference where Dr. Milbank Johnson was going to reveal the results of Rife’s study in 1934, he was fatally poisoned and his notes and papers were “lost.” Along with that, a failed attempt by drug companies to purchase the device from Rife resulted in his labs being destroyed by arson. If that wasn’t enough, Dr. Nemes who had been duplicating Rife’s work, was mysteriously killed in a fire and his research material was all destroyed as well. Finally, the Burnett Lab, which had been validating all of Rife’s work, was also destroyed in a fire. Sure seems like the pharmaceutical industry may have been involved in this. But what about Rife? By 1971 Royal Rife died by an “accidental” lethal dose of Valium and alcohol at Grossmont hospital.

Rife machines do still exist today and are used in some medical practices but they are not FDA approved and are sometimes still seized by the FDA. They are often sold under the label of ‘veterinary devices.

Sources:

http://www.wanttoknow.info/cancercuresroyalrife

http://peswiki.com/index.php/PowerPedia:Royal_Raymond_Rife

http://www.energy-medicine.info/true-rife-plasma-devices.html

http://www.amazon.com/Cancer-Cure-That-Worked-Suppression/dp/0919951309?tag=wanttinfo-20

http://educate-yourself.org/cn/cancercurethatworked1997.shtml

– See more at: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2014/01/06/the-cancer-curing-device-that-big-pharma-destroyed-the-royal-rife-device/#sthash.AMmaVMtW.dpuf

Scientists Report Teleportation of Physical Objects From One Location To Another

teleportThe concept of teleportation comes primarily from science fiction literature throughout human history, but things are changing. It’s 2014 and developments in quantum theory and general relativity physics have been successful in exploring the concept of teleportation for quite some time now.

Today, numerous teleportation breakthroughs have been made. One example is the work of Professor Rainer Blatt, at the University of Innsbruck. They were successfully able to perform teleportation on atoms for the first time, their work was published in the journal Nature.(1) They were able to transfer key properties of one particle to another without using any physical link. In this case, teleportation occurred in the form of transferring quantum states between two atoms, these include the atom’s energy, motion, magnetic field and other physical properties. This is possible due to the strange behavior that exists at the atomic scale, known as entanglement. It’s what Einstein referred to as a “spooky action.”

Another study was published by a team of University of Queensland physicists in the journal Nature in 2013 demonstrating the successful teleportation with solid state systems. (2) A process by which, again, quantum information can be transmitted from one place to another without sending a physical carrier of information. This is the same concept, and is made possible through the phenomenon of entanglement.

Quantum teleportation has been replicated by numerous scientists all over the world a number of times.

The above examples all refer to quantum teleportation, and given that we are all made up of atoms, it lends belief to the possibility that one day we will be able to teleport full physical objects, but some studies, at the highest levels of government, suggest that it’s already been done.

There are different categories of teleportation. Again, the two examples I used above are refereed to as quantum teleportation. Another type of teleportation is psychic, which is the conveyance of persons or inanimate objects by psychic means.

“It became known to to myself, along with several colleagues both inside and outside of government, that anomalous teleportation has been scientifically investigated and separately documented by the Department of Defense.” (3) – Eric Davis, Ph.D, FBIS

A paper published in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in September 1981, in the journal Ziran Zazhi (Nature Journal) tilted “Some Experiments on the Transfer of Objects Performed by Unusual Abilities of the Human Body” (Shuhuang et al., 1981) reported that ‘gifted children,’ were able to cause the teleportation of small, physical objects from one place to another. Objects included watches, horseflies, other insects, radio micro-transmitters, photosensitive paper and more. The participants never touched the objects beforehand. The experiments were done under both blind and double-blind conditions, and the researches involved came from various colleges and sectors of the Department of Defense.(3) This is an exceptional case, because it was deemed necessary that an unclassified Intelligence Information Report be prepared for public viewing.

More research was done by the Aerospace Medicine Engineering Institute in Beijing, in July of 1990. It was published in the Chinese Journal of Somatic Science (Kongzhi et al., 1990: Jinggen et al., 1990; Banghui; 1990). This study reported several experiments involving high speed photography video taping, which was able to capture the transfer of test specimens like nuts, matches, nails, pills and more through the walls of sealed paper envelopes, sealed glass bottles and tubes, sealed plastic film canisters and more without the walls of any of these containers being breached.  All of these experiments reported using gifted children and adults to cause the teleportation of various materials.(3)

In all of the examples, it was reported that the test specimens remained in their original state after teleportation, including the insects.

“The Chinese papers are all extremely interesting and very well written, and they show photographs and schematic diagrams of the various experimental setups. The experimental protocols were explained in lengthy detail, and through data and thorough data and statistical analysis were presented in the results.”
(3)  Eric Davis, Ph.D, FBIS

The experiments showed that:

  • Different research groups designed different experimental methods, used gifted psychics, different sealed containers and test specimens that were to be teleported
  • Time required for teleportation of the test specimens through various barriers was anywhere from a fraction of a second to several minutes, it didn’t matter which test specimen was used.
  • The high-speed photography/videotaping recorded test specimens melding or blending with the walls of sealed containers, and then simply disappear from inside the container only to reappear at another location.
  • The Radio Micro-transmitter used as a test specimen changed in frequency dramatically during teleportation, researchers concluded that this indicated that the specimen was “nonexistent,” or in another altered physical state during teleportation. The frequency of the transmission were stable before and after teleportation
  • The experimental results were all repeatable
  • The conditions for fraud and sleight of hand were totally eliminated, and multiple outside witnesses (technical and military-intelligence experts) were present at all times

Obviously, the scientists could not offer an explanation to explain the results.

“Some researchers state that it is necessary to invoke a new physics, which somehow unifies the human consciousness (i.e., physics of consciousness) with quantum and spacetime physics, in order to understand psychic teleportation and related PK phenomena. The researchers were amazed by their repeated results, and were barely able to fathom the altered “state of being” that test specimens underwent during teleportation.” (3) – Eric Davis, Ph.D, FBIS

This was the conclusion given by Eric W. Davis, in the same report cited throughout this article, done for the United States Air Force, at their research lab which was approved for public release:(3)

“The results of the Chinese Teleportation experiments can simply be explained as a human consciousness phenomenon that somehow acts to move or rotate test specimens through a 4th spacial dimension, so that specimens are able to penetrate the solid walls/barriers of their containers without physically breaching them.”  – Eric Davis, Ph.D, FBIS

This is just another example of many that demonstrate the validity of consciousness, and the many different influences it can have on our physical material world.

Related CE Articles:

Shocking Discoveries Made: Studies Confirm The Reality Of Remote Viewing

Psychokinesis: Another Example Of How Consciousness And Reality Are Intertwined

The Illusion Of Matter: Our Physical Reality Really Isn’t Physical At All

Mind Over Matter: Princeton & Russian Scientist Reveal The Secrets Of Human Aura & Intentions

If Thoughts Can Do This To Water – Imagine What They Can Do To Us

The Star Gate Project: Did the US Government Really Shut It Down?

Sources:

(1) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v429/n6993/abs/nature02570.html

(2) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v500/n7462/full/nature12422.html

(3) http://www.fas.org/sgp/eprint/teleport.pdf

http://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2013/09/teleportation-engineered-quantum-systems

Source (3) was obtained by me from:

The Federation of American Scientists, learn more about them herehere and here.

– See more at: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2014/01/16/scientists-report-teleportation-of-physical-objects-from-one-location-to-another/#sthash.lvHLaAL9.dpuf

Cancer Industry Exposed as Fraud “The Science is False”

Major studies within cancer research have been proven to be false which suggests that the mainstream treatments we use are based on fraudulent findings and false science.

Recent news has shown that the majority of studies geared towards cancer research are inaccurate and likely fraudulent by nature. Findings published in the journal Nature show that 88% of major studies on cancer that have been published in reputable journals over the years can not be reproduced to show their accuracy. This means that the research findings published are not based on accurate results.

Author of the review and former head of cancer research at Amgen C. Glenn Begley was unable to replicate the results of 47 of the 53 studies he examined. This suggests that researchers are fabricating their findings simply to create the illusion of positive findings instead of publishing their actual results. This ensures the continuation of their steady stream of funding and grants.

Begley  stated: “These are the studies the pharmaceutical industry relies on to identify new targets for drug development, but if you’re going to place a $1 million or $2 million or $5 million bet on an observation, you need to be sure it’s true. As we tried to reproduce these papers we became convinced you can’t take anything at face value.”

Although Begley was unable to publish the names of those who published the false findings, this recent development shows that the vast majority or modern cancer treatment approaches are invalid given they have been built off of a poor base.

The University of Michigan’s Comprehensive Cancer Center published an analysis in 2009, that revealed popular cancer studies to be false. Unsurprisingly the primary cause of fabricated results was determined to be conflicts of interest that created results that work out best for drug companies rather than for the people.


Personally I have always felt the cancer industry to be transparent when it came to their research and treatments. In many ways it is common sense. If someone said to you “This body is sick and we need to some how make it better.” Would you think to completely poison and destroy every healthy cell in it in order to make it better? While it can show results in minimal cases, it isn’t the most ideal approach. We are using highly carcinogenic treatments to cure a disease who’s development is sped up through carcinogens.

The very fact that incredible amounts of money have been funnelled into cancer research by people over the years and yet no cure has been found should be a tell tale sign things aren’t what they seem. This reveals in itself that the money is not going where we might think it is and there is not a complete effort to find a cure. While many people are aware of this and more are continuing to learn about it, the vast majority of us continue to believe in what we are told from government, education and the media about their findings that have been proven false time and time again.

SOURCES:

University of Michigan report – http://www.uofmhealth.org/news/1147cancer-studies-report-conflict-of-interest

Yahoo Cancer Article: http://news.yahoo.com/cancer-science-many-discoveries-dont-hold-174216262.html

Scientists film how the brain makes memories for the first time ever

Scientists film how the brain makes memories for the first time ever

For the first time in history, scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have captured how our brain makes memories in video, watching how molecules morph into the structures that, at the end of the day, make who we are. If there’s a soul, this how it gets made.

Before this, Japanese scientists observed how a thought was formed, which was an entirely different process. According to the scientists, the has been a “technological tour de force:”

These insights into the molecular basis of memory were made possible by a technological tour de force never before achieved in animals: a mouse model developed at Einstein in which molecules crucial to making memories were given fluorescent “tags” so they could be observed traveling in real time in living brain cells.

The process, which has been documented in two Science papers, required researchers to “stimulate neurons from the mouse’s hippocampus, where memories are made and stored, and then watched fluorescently glowing beta-actin mRNA molecules form in the nuclei of neurons and travel within dendrites, the neuron’s branched projections.”

What they have found is fascinating: “mRNA in neurons is regulated through a novel process described as “masking” and “unmasking,” which allows beta-actin protein to be synthesized at specific times and places and in specific amounts.”

This is precisely how scientists imagined things worked, according to Doctor Robert Singer, the research papers’ senior author:

This observation that neurons selectively activate protein synthesis and then shut it off fits perfectly with how we think memories are made. Frequent stimulation of the neuron would make mRNA available in frequent, controlled bursts, causing beta-actin protein to accumulate precisely where it’s needed to strengthen the synapse.

It kind of sounds like a computer storing data bits into a hard drive!

Observations of the Solar System’s biggest asteroid suggest it is spewing plumes of water vapour into space

By Jonathan AmosScience correspondent, BBC News

Ceres impression
An artist’s impression of water out-gassing from two sources on Ceres
Observations of the Solar System’s biggest asteroid suggest it is spewing plumes of water vapour into space.

Ceres has long been thought to contain substantial quantities of ice within its body, but this is the first time such releases have been detected.

The discovery was made by Europe’s infrared Herschel space telescope, and is reported in the journal Nature.

Scientists believe the vapour is coming from dark coloured regions on Ceres’ surface, but are not sure of the cause.

One idea is that surface, or near-surface, ice is being warmed by the Sun, turning it directly to a gas that then escapes to space.

“Another possibility,” says the European Space Agency’s Michael Kuppers, “is that there is still some energy in the interior of Ceres, and this energy would make the water vent out in a similar way as for geysers on Earth, only that with the low pressure at the surface of the asteroid, what comes out would be a vapour and not a liquid.”

The quantity being out-gassed is not great – just 6kg per second – but the signature is unmistakable to Herschel, which was perfectly tuned to detect water molecules in space.

The telescope’s observations were made before its decommissioning last year.

Ceres pictured by HubbleCurrently, our best image of Ceres comes from the Hubble Space Telescope

Scientists will get a better idea of what is going on in 2015, when Ceres is visited by theAmerican space agency’s Dawn probe.

The satellite will go into orbit around the 950km-wide body, mapping its surface and determining its composition and structure.

“It will be able to observe those dark regions at high resolution, and will probably solve the question of what process is creating the water vapour,” explained Dr Kuppers.

Ceres is often now referred to as a “dwarf planet” – the same designation used to describe Pluto following its demotion from full planet status in 2006.

The asteroid’s sheer size means gravity has pulled it into a near-spherical form.

It is regarded as quite a primitive body in that it has clearly not undergone the same heating and processing of its materials that the many other objects in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter have experienced.

Scientists suspect water-ice is buried under Ceres’ crust because its density is less than that of the Earth’s. And this reputation as a “wet body” is supported by the presence of a lot of minerals at its surface that have water bound into their structure.

One theory to explain why Ceres has so much more water-ice than other members of the surrounding asteroid population is that it formed further away from the Sun, and only later migrated to its present location.

This could have happened if perturbed by Jupiter, whose gravity plays a key role in corralling the asteroids in the belt they occupy today.

“We now have a more sophisticated model for the evolution of the Solar System called the Nice model, which successfully explains many of the features of the Solar System, with the planets having migrated outwards and then maybe also inwards,” said Dr Kuppers.

Jonathan.Amos-INTERNET@bbc.co.uk and follow me on Twitter:@BBCAmos

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