Researchers find evidence: Ancient China discovered America thousands of years before Columbus

It appears that after all, we have history all wrong. Mainstream history and archaeology can try to deny these facts as much as they want, but eventually, things will change and people will open their eyes to new possibilities.

According to a new study, researchers believe that the ancient Chinese discovered the American continent 2000 years before Christopher Colombus.

Trade between Eastern parts of Asia and the New World is believed to have taken place much before Christopher Columbus arrived to the “New World” changing history books .

He-bases-his-theory-on-an-alleged-18th-century-copy-of-a-1418-map-charted-by-Chinese-Admiral-Zheng-580x385

The group of researchers have discovered, in Alaska, a dozen of Bronze artifacts that dramatically disprove the usual version that we have been thought in school: that it was Christopher Columbus who discovered the American Continent.

Before Christopher Columbus reached the New World in 1492 other adventurers had already stepped on American soil. Their “fingerprints” were discovered by a group of American archeologists excavating in Alaska, finding several artifacts including a buckle and a bronze whistle.

Now, researchers propose several new theories that can change history as we have been thought in school. Long before the arrival of Spaniards, the Native Americans were in contact with other great cultures which include: China, Korea and the region of Yakutia, Russia. These exchanges would have taken place 2,600 years ago, marking the date of Columbus’ arrival as something ordinary and not as a historical date like we have been told in history class.

Chinese discovered America
Archaeologists working on Rising Whale, Alaska. Photo: University of Colorado

Researchers say that, the region of North America where these artifacts were found, techniques of obtaining such an alloy were unknown in that time of history, so the scientists conclude, their origin would come from East Asia. It is assumed that trade would have been established through the Bering Strait when it was frozen.

“The traditional story of Columbus and the discovery of the New World is an absolute fantasy, a fairy tales” said Gavin Menzies in an interview with Mail Online.

Some researchers believe that the first inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere came overland from the Bering Strait, but it was the Chinese sailors who first crossed the Pacific Ocean 40 000 years ago.

Experts also believe they have found a much deeper connecting between American natives and Asian inhabitants pointing towards the discovery of DNA markers that show that American Indians and other natives are descendants of several Asian cultures.

Bronze-working-had-not-been-developed-at-this-time-in-Alaska-and-researchers-believe-the-artefacts-were-created-in-China-Korea-or-Yakutia-580x319

Most scientists believe that humans arrived in the New World 15,000 years, however, a recent genetic study suggests that Asian travels set foot on the New world much before that.

These discoveries can turn out to be radical when it comes to history. The question is, when will we start looking at thing from another perspective. Apparently history has been taught to new generations completely wrong.

We have known for years that human beings inhabited Earth much earlier than science and history tell us, we have also learned that ancient civilizations were extremely intelligent, possessing technologies that we today cannot understand, and now we have been told that some parts of our planet have been discovered thousands of years before than history books have it recorded.

What Would Happen If Everyone On Earth Jumped At The Same Time?

photo credit: NASA/JPL

What would happen if every single man, woman and child on Earth all jumped in the air at the exact same time?

Michael from Vsauce explains.

 



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Newly Discovered Fossils Hint That All Dinosaurs May Have Had Feathers

photo credit: Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus in its lacustrine environment. Image credit: Andrey Atuchin

Over 30 species of non-avian dinosaurs have been confirmed to have feathers, either from direct fossilized evidence of feathers, or other indicators, such as quill knobs. Up until now, all of those dinosaurs were confirmed to be carnivorous theropods, like Velociraptor and the ancestors of birds. However, fossilized remains of a new type of herbivorous dinosaur indicate that all dinosaurs may have had feathers. The study was led by Pascal Godefroit from the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural History in Brussels and the results were published in Science.

The fossils were discovered at the Kulinda site in Siberia, along the banks of the Olov River. The new species, Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus, was discovered in 2013 and preliminary K-Ar testing estimates that the species lived about 169-150 million years ago. It was approximately 3 meters long, which is relatively small for a dinosaur. The bipedal animal had short forelimbs and longer hind legs with five digits. The description was made based on hundreds of incomplete skeletons, including six skulls.

The fact that the skeletons were not found intact could indicate that while the dinosaurs were alive, that environment had rivers. Upon the dinosaur’s death, the water likely transported the animal, causing portions of the skeleton to disassociate. These particular individuals were likely covered by sediment on the bottom of the river, protecting the carcass from scavengers, and allowing imprints from the feathers and scales to be preserved.

“I was really amazed when I saw this,” Godefroit stated in a press release. “We knew that some of the plant-eating ornithischian dinosaurs had simple bristles, and we couldn’t be sure whether these were the same kinds of structures as bird and theropod feathers.  Our new find clinches it: all dinosaurs had feathers, or at least the potential to sprout feathers.”

The fossilized feathers were sent to specialists who had previous experience with dinosaur feathers. The feathers discovered at the Kulinda site were in remarkable condition, allowing the experts to determine that the feathers were composed of filaments that connected at the base, rather than along a central shaft, like is seen in many modern birds.

“Developmental experiments in modern chickens suggest that avian scales are aborted feathers, an idea that explains why birds have scaly legs,” co-author Danielle Dhouailly added. “The astonishing discovery is that the molecular mechanisms needed for this switch might have been so clearly related to the appearance of the first feathers in the earliest dinosaurs.”

The researchers suspect that feathers were a common feature among dinosaurs, particularly smaller ones. They were likely used to insulate the animals, and evolved to aid in flight much later. Fossils have shown evidence of feathered dinosaurs over a 50 million year timespan, and it is possible that they first appeared 220 million years ago in the Triassic. Of course, it is a bit speculative to assume that every dinosaur could have had feathers, and a great deal of research will be needed to fully explore the prevalence of feathers among dinosaurs.



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Single Tree Grows 40 Kinds Of Fruit

In an ongoing series on hybridizing fruit trees, Syracuse University sculptor Sam Van Aken’s Tree of 40 Fruit is true to its name. Most of the year, it looks pretty ordinary, but in the spring, the tree blossoms display various tones of pink, crimson, and white. Then, from July through October, it bears 40 different types of stone fruit, including almonds, apricots, cherries, nectarines, peaches, and plums.

The feat is accomplished by grafting together several different varieties, including native fruit, heirlooms, and antiques, some of which are centuries-old, Aken tells Epicurious.

His main source is an orchard at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, which he leased when he heard the orchard was to be torn down. After developing a timeline of when each of the 250 varieties blossom in relation to each other, he would graft a few onto the root structure of a single tree. When his “working tree” was about two years old, he would add more varieties onto the tree as separate branches — a technique called “chip grafting,” Science Alert explains. A sliver that includes a bud is inserted into an incision in the working tree and then taped in place. After it heals over the winter, the branch becomes just another normal branch on the tree, to be pruned as usual.

So far, 16 of these Trees of 40 Fruit have been grown, each taking about five years. He picked stone fruits because they’ve got a lot of diversity and they’re inter-compatible. And a bit of garlic and peppermint repellents keep deer away.

“By grafting these different varieties onto the tree in a certain order I can essentially sculpt how the tree is to blossom,” he says. “I’ve been told by people that have [a tree] at their home that it provides the perfect amount and perfect variety of fruit.”

 



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Scientists Get First Look Inside Mysterious Siberian Crater

Photo credit: Screen shot from YouTube video by The Siberian Times

 



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Russian scientists got their first look inside the mysterious crater in Yamal, Siberia on Wednesday, July 16, while the Siberian Times took a helicopter ride to get another look down into the hole.

Based off of the original video of the crater, it was estimated that the crater could have been up to 80 meters wide. However, Andrey Plekhanov of the State Scientific Centre of Arctic Research told The Siberian Times that the hole is about 30 meters wide and the outer portion that includes the soil emission is around 60 meters in diameter. The researchers were also able to get their first look at the icy lake that exists at the bottom of the 70-meters-deep hole. Soil, air, and water samples have been taken in order to help determine the cause.

Preliminary results indicate that the hole was formed within the last two years and satellite data is being examined to try and identify exactly when it first appeared. Plekhanov told the Siberian Times that it was an ejection from within the permafrost, but it was not an explosion as there was not a release of heat.

Some had initially speculated that natural gas had been trapped underground in ice, as the area had been locked in permafrost for thousands of years. However, as the ground thawed and the gas became warmer, the increased pressure may have ejected outward and caused the hole. The summers of 2012 and 2013 were especially warm in the region, but the researchers still have more work to do before naming a specific cause.

While the world waits for the samples to be processed and analyzed, please enjoy this video that gives a closer look at this mysterious formation:

Massive Ancient Settlement Unearthed in Puerto Rico

Bodies, structures, and rock art thought to belong to an indigenous pre-Columbian culture have been unearthed at an ancient settlement in Puerto Rico, officials recently announced.  Archaeologists say the complex could be the most significant of its kind in the Caribbean.
“This is a very well preserved site,” said Aida Belén Rivera-Ruiz, director of Puerto Rico’s State Office of Historic Preservation.
“The site seems to show two occupations: a pre-Taino and a Taino settlement.” The Taino are thought to be a subgroup of the Arawak Indians who migrated to the Caribbean from Mexico or South America hundreds of years ago, experts say. They were among the first tribes to encounter Europeans.
Archaeologists have known since 1985 that the area contained indigenous artifacts. But the scope of the site became clear only recently, as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began construction on a new dam.
Perhaps the most significant find is a large plaza covering an area of about 130 by 160 feet. The plaza, which contains stones etched with ancient petroglyphs, might have been a court used for ceremonial rituals or ball games.
“If this information is confirmed, this would be the largest known indigenous batey in the Caribbean,” Rivera-Ruiz said. Roberto Mucaro Borrero, a representative of the United Confederation of Taino People, agreed. The site “could be the largest ancient Taino cultural area found not only in Puerto Rico but throughout the Caribbean,” Borrero said.
And petroglyphs of a masculine figure with frog legs could prove especially important in understanding the culture’s roots, he added. “They could reveal evidence of direct links between the Taino and the Mayan peoples,” he said.
Confusion and criticisms are already swirling amidst excitement over the findings. Initial reports about bodies found in several graves at the site suggest that the people were buried in unique positions. The bodies were “buried facedown with the legs bent at the knees—a style never seen before in the region,” the Associated Press reported.
But Miguel Rodriguez, a member of the Puerto Rican government’s archaeological council, said the burial positioning isn’t unheard of in the area.

Kit Wesler, a Taino expert at Murray State University in Kentucky, also said that the “facedown position is unusual but probably not unprecedented.”  Rivera-Ruiz of the state preservation office stressed that any claims about the uniqueness of the burial arrangements must await a full excavation and studies of any funerary objects.

Scientists Sign Declaration That Animals Have Conscious Awareness; Just Like Humans

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An international group of prominent scientists has signed The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness in which they are proclaiming their support for the idea that animals are conscious and aware to the degree that humans are — a list of animals that includes all mammals, birds, and even the octopus. But will this make us stop treating these animals in totally inhumane ways?

Prominent scientists sign declaration that animals have conscious awareness, just like us

While it might not sound like much for scientists to declare that many nonhuman animals possess conscious states, it’s the open acknowledgement that’s the big news here. The body of scientific evidence is increasingly showing that most animals are conscious in the same way that we are, and it’s no longer something we can ignore.

What’s also very interesting about the declaration is the group’s acknowledgement that consciousness can emerge in those animals that are very much unlike humans, including those that evolved along different evolutionary tracks, namely birds and some cephalopods.

“The absence of a neocortex does not appear to preclude an organism from experiencing affective states,” they write, “Convergent evidence indicates that non-human animals have the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurophysiological substrates of conscious states along with the capacity to exhibit intentional behaviors.”

Consequently, say the signatories, the scientific evidence is increasingly indicating that humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness.

Prominent scientists sign declaration that animals have conscious awareness, just like us

The group consists of cognitive scientists, neuropharmacologists, neurophysiologists, neuroanatomists, and computational neuroscientists — all of whom were attending the Francis Crick Memorial Conference on Consciousness in Human and Non-Human Animals. The declaration was signed in the presence of Stephen Hawking, and included such signatories as Christof Koch, David Edelman, Edward Boyden, Philip Low, Irene Pepperberg, and many more.

The declaration made the following observations:

  • The field of Consciousness research is rapidly evolving. Abundant new techniques and strategies for human and non-human animal research have been developed. Consequently, more data is becoming readily available, and this calls for a periodic reevaluation of previously held preconceptions in this field. Studies of non-human animals have shown that homologous brain circuits correlated with conscious experience and perception can be selectively facilitated and disrupted to assess whether they are in fact necessary for those experiences. Moreover, in humans, new non-invasive techniques are readily available to survey the correlates of consciousness.
  • The neural substrates of emotions do not appear to be confined to cortical structures. In fact, subcortical neural networks aroused during affective states in humans are also critically important for generating emotional behaviors in animals. Artificial arousal of the same brain regions generates corresponding behavior and feeling states in both humans and non-human animals. Wherever in the brain one evokes instinctual emotional behaviors in non-human animals, many of the ensuing behaviors are consistent with experienced feeling states, including those internal states that are rewarding and punishing. Deep brain stimulation of these systems in humans can also generate similar affective states. Systems associated with affect are concentrated in subcortical regions where neural homologies abound. Young human and nonhuman animals without neocortices retain these brain-mind functions. Furthermore, neural circuits supporting behavioral/electrophysiological states of attentiveness, sleep and decision making appear to have arisen in evolution as early as the invertebrate radiation, being evident in insects and cephalopod mollusks (e.g., octopus).
  • Birds appear to offer, in their behavior, neurophysiology, and neuroanatomy a striking case of parallel evolution of consciousness. Evidence of near human-like levels of consciousness has been most dramatically observed in African grey parrots. Mammalian and avian emotional networks and cognitive microcircuitries appear to be far more homologous than previously thought. Moreover, certain species of birds have been found to exhibit neural sleep patterns similar to those of mammals, including REM sleep and, as was demonstrated in zebra finches, neurophysiological patterns, previously thought to require a mammalian neocortex. Magpies in articular have been shown to exhibit striking similarities to humans, great apes, dolphins, and elephants in studies of mirror self-recognition.
  • In humans, the effect of certain hallucinogens appears to be associated with a disruption in cortical feedforward and feedback processing. Pharmacological interventions in non-human animals with compounds known to affect conscious behavior in humans can lead to similar perturbations in behavior in non-human animals. In humans, there is evidence to suggest that awareness is correlated with cortical activity, which does not exclude possible contributions by subcortical or early cortical processing, as in visual awareness. Evidence that human and nonhuman animal emotional feelings arise from homologous subcortical brain networks provide compelling evidence for evolutionarily shared primal affective qualia.

Massive Chunk of Glacier Breaks Off Into Ocean

photo credit: James Balog

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Two filmmakers record a large chunk of glacier breaking off and sinking into the ocean while filming the award-winning documentary Chasing Ice. It was the single largest calving event that has ever been recorded. Over the course of 75 minutes, they watched almost five square kilometers (3 square miles) of ice break away. This isn’t just a little crust of ice either, it’s about 915 meters (3000 feet) The video shows a time lapse of what that process looks like over the course of a few seconds. At the end of the video, the filmmakers show what it would look like if lower Manhattan were sitting in that same area. It is a humbling feeling to see such a great expanse of ice fall into the water as if it were nothing.

Glacial retreat is just one of many parameters that scientists use when studying climate change. As global temperatures rise, the glaciers cannot hold the sea water as ice any longer. As they melt, the sea levels will rise. Scientists have calculated that sea levels appear to be rising at 3.5 millimeters (0.14 inches) over the last 25 years. On the surface, that sounds meager enough… unless you know how to multiply. Globally, sea levels are up as much as 8 inches (20 centimeters) in the last 100 years alone. Unfortunately, glacier retreat and subsequent sea level increase have sped up over the last two decades.

By 2100, it is estimated that sea levels will rise as much as 40-120 centimeters (16-48 inches). Unfortunately, because of all of the combining factors that play into glacial retreat and rising sea levels, more precise numbers cannot be given. On the upper end of that scale, millions living in cities like New York, London, Miami, and Los Angeles will be displaced. Entire islands could disappear. The changing ocean waters are also expected to impact the fish populations and could very well reduce the food supply. These consequences are going to be catastrophic.

– See more at: http://www.iflscience.com/environment/massive-chunk-glacier-breaks-ocean#sthash.yA2hzPpL.dpuf

Global Warming? Freezes Venice. Lake Superior Will Freeze Over this Winter

How to explain record cold temperatures? Well, global warming has “paused,” according to warmist scientists.

EPA Administrator: We ‘Look at Climate Change As Something Where We … Can Grow Jobs’

‘Gina McCarthy, administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), asked scientists at a climate change conference on Thursday in Arlington, Va., to explain the science of climate change.

She also said that the EPA looks at climate change as an opportunity to grow the economy and create jobs.

“Scientists, you folks help us understand our world,” McCarthy said at the 14th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Building Climate Solutions, sponsored by the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE). “You help EPA to meet our mission of public health protection and environmental protection.’

 

lakesuperior

They cite a study published in the Nature Climate Change journal. It says increased trade winds in the central and eastern areas of the Pacific have forced warm surface water deep within the ocean and that has reduced the amount of heat released into the atmosphere.

The warming pause was taken up by the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It declared in its 2013 climate report that the Earth is going through a solar minimum and the oceans are sucking up most of the heat.

Not to worry, though. “This hiatus could persist for much of the present decade if the trade wind trends continue, however rapid warming is expected to resume once the anomalous wind trends abate,” the Nature Climate Change report states.

Here’s another anomaly. For the first times in decades, Lake Superior, the largest body of fresh water in the world, is predicted to freeze over this winter. A sheet of ice will form over the surface of the three-quadrillion-gallon lake. The mean thickness of the ice, reports the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, will be over 10 inches.

According to Jay Austin, associate professor at the Large Lakes Observatory in Duluth, Minnesota, the ice will produce an “air conditioning” effect this summer. “Typically, the lake will start warming up in late June, but it will be August before we see that this year,” Austin told CNSNews.com.

In September, there was a 29 percent increase in the amount of ocean covered with ice over the previous year. An unbroken ice sheet more than half the size of Europe stretched from the Canadian islands to the north shores of Russia, The Telegraph reported. The Northwest Passage, the route through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago that links the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, was clogged with ice all last year.

And then somebody at the IPCC leaked a report last year that had scientists reversing their convictions on global warming. Some now believe we’re in for a period of global cooling, not warming.

For now, it looks like civilization will not have to be dismantled to save us from the threat of “human-induced” global warming. Instead, civilization will benefit from more efficient ways to keep humans warm as the “hiatus” continues.

Bacteria Live At 33,000 Feet

Samples From the Sky
NASA

AWESOME!

Earth’s upper atmosphere—below freezing, nearly without oxygen, flooded by UV radiation—is no place to live. But last winter, scientists from the Georgia Institute of Technology discovered that billions of bacteria actually thrive up there. Expecting only a smattering of microorganisms, the researchers flew six miles above Earth’s surface in a NASA jet plane. There, they pumped outside air through a filter to collect particles. Back on the ground, they tallied the organisms, and the count was staggering: 20 percent of what they had assumed to be just dust or other particles was alive. Earth, it seems, is surrounded by a bubble of bacteria.

 

It’s Alive! & Airborne
In the midst of airborne sea salt and dust, researchers from Georgia Tech unexpectedly found thousands of living fungal cells and bacteria, including E. coli and Streptococcus.
Courtesy Georgia Tech; Photo by Gary Meek

NOW WHAT?

Scientists don’t yet know what the bacteria are doing up there, but they may be essential to how the atmosphere functions, says Kostas Konstantinidis, an environmental microbiologist on the Georgia Tech team. For example, they could be responsible for recycling nutrients in the atmosphere, like they do on Earth. And similar to other particles, they could influence weather patterns by helping clouds form. However, they also may be transmitting diseases from one side of the globe to the other. The researchers found E. coli in their samples (which they think hurricanes lifted from cities), and they plan to investigate whether plagues are raining down on us. If we can find out more about the role of bacteria in the atmosphere, says Ann Womack, a microbial ecologist at the University of Oregon, scientists could even fight climate change by engineering the bacteria to break down greenhouse gases into other, less harmful compounds.

 

Researchers from Georgia Tech
Courtesy Georgia Tech; Photo by Gary Meek

This article originally appeared in the July 2013 issue of Popular Science. See the rest of the magazine here.