photo credit: OTNL. We can’t see the new element 117, but the berkelium used to make it is held between these tweezers
The newfound planet, called Kepler-186f, was first spotted by NASA’s Kepler space telescope and circles a dim red dwarf star about 490 light-years from Earth. While the host star is dimmer than Earth’s sun and the planet is slightly bigger than Earth, the positioning of the alien world coupled with its size suggests that Kepler-186f could have water on its surface, scientists say. You can learn more about the amazing alien planet find in a videoproduced by Space.com. “One of the things we’ve been looking for is maybe an Earth twin, which is an Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of a sunlike star,” Tom Barclay, Kepler scientist and co-author of the new exoplanet research, told Space.com. “This [Kepler-186f] is an Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of a cooler star. So, while it’s not an Earth twin, it is perhaps an Earth cousin. It has similar characteristics, but a different parent.”
The rocky alien planet Kepler 186f is an Earth-size world that could have liquid water on its surface, and possibly even life. It orbits a star 490 light-years away.See the full details of alien planet Kepler-186f in this Space.com infographic. Credit: By Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
Scientists think that Kepler-186f — the outermost of five planets found to be orbiting the star Kepler-186 — orbits at a distance of 32.5 million miles (52.4 million kilometers), theoretically within the habitable zone for a red dwarf. Earth orbits the sun from an average distance of about 93 million miles (150 million km), but the sun is larger and brighter than the Kepler-186 star, meaning that the sun’s habitable zone begins farther out from the star by comparison to Kepler-186. “This is the first definitive Earth-sized planet found in the habitable zone around another star,” Elisa Quintana, of the SETI Institute and NASA’s Ames Research Center and the lead author of a new study detailing the findings, said in a statement. Other planets of various sizes have been found in the habitable zones of their stars. However, Kepler-186f is the first alien planet this close to Earth in size found orbiting in that potentially life-supporting area of an extrasolar system, according to exoplanet scientists. ‘An historic discovery’ “This is an historic discovery of the first truly Earth-size planet found in the habitable zone around its star,” Geoff Marcy, an astronomer at the University of California, Berkeley, who is unaffiliated with the research, told Space.com via email. “This is the best case for a habitable planet yet found. The results are absolutely rock-solid. The planet itself may not be, but I’d bet my house on it. In any case, it’s a gem.” The newly discovered planet measures about 1.1 Earth radii, making it slightly larger than Earth, but researchers still think the alien world may be rocky like Earth. Researchers still aren’t sure what Kepler-186f’s atmosphere is made of, a key element that could help scientists understand if the planet is hospitable to life. [Kepler-186f: Earth-Size World Could Support Oceans, Maybe Life (Infographic)] “What we’ve learned, just over the past few years, is that there is a definite transition which occurs around about 1.5 Earth radii,” Quintana said in a statement. “What happens there is that for radii between 1.5 and 2 Earth radii, the planet becomes massive enough that it starts to accumulate a very thick hydrogen and helium atmosphere, so it starts to resemble the gas giants of our solar system rather than anything else that we see as terrestrial.”
This diagram shows the position of Kepler-186f in relation to Earth. Credit: NASA Ames/SETI Institute/JPL-CalTech
Kepler-186f actually lies at the edge of the Kepler-186 star’s habitable zone, meaning that liquid water on the planet’s surface could freeze, according to study co-author Stephen Kane of San Francisco State University. Because of its position in the outer part of the habitable zone, the planet’s larger size could actually help keep its water liquid, Kane said in a statement. Since it is slightly bigger than Earth, Kepler-186f could have a thicker atmosphere, which would insulate the planet and potentially keep its water in liquid form, Kane added. “It [Kepler-186f] goes around its star over 130 days, but because its star is a lower mass than our sun, the planet orbits slightly inner of where Mercury orbits in our own solar system,” Barclay said. “It’s on the cooler edge of the habitable zone. It’s still well within it, but it receives less energy than Earth receives. So, if you’re on this planet [Kepler-186f], the star would appear dimmer.” Exoplanet hunting in the future Kepler-186f could be too dim for follow-up studies that would probe the planet’s atmosphere. NASA’sJames Webb Space Telescope — Hubble’s successor, expected to launch to space in 2018 — is designed to image planets around relatively nearby stars; however, the Kepler-186 system might be too far off for the powerful telescope to investigate, Barclay said. Scientists using the Kepler telescope discovered Kepler-186f using the transit method: When the planet moved across the face of its star from the telescope’s perspective, Kepler recorded a slight dip in the star’s brightness, allowing researchers to learn more about the planet itself. Kepler suffered a major malfunction last year and is no longer working in the same fashion, but scientists are still going through the spacecraft’s trove of data searching for new alien worlds. “I find it simply awesome that we live in a time when finding potentially habitable planets is common, and the method to find them is standardized,” MIT exoplanet hunter and astrophysicist Sara Seager, who is unaffiliated with the research, told Space.com via email. The new research was published online today (April 17) in the journal Science.
Two Brazilian inventors, Nilson Barbosa and Cleriston Leal, claim to have invented a free energy device and are now selling this device to the public. The device is called the Earth Electron Captor Generator, or “GERADOR CAPTOR DE ELÉTRONS DA TERRA” in Portuguese.
They are presently only offering the device to people who live in the city of Imperatriz. However, they are working to license production with several manufacturing firms that will allow for online sales. Their website says they will update their page with distributor information when it becomes available. The rumor mill says global distributors will come online in January of 2014.
The device requires a small amount of initial input power to initiate the movement of a sensor, which then produces over-unity power. The device is small, which means it can be used to power vehicles, homes, and businesses. The site claims the input power needed to run it is around 2% of its output power.
They have several sizes of the generator. The smallest prototype they built is capable of generating 12.1 kw of power, with a load of 6000 watts, using only 21 watts input energy. The prototype unit weighs 1.5 kg measuring 20x30x15 cm. The average home needs around 15 kw of power.
The product looks legit. If this is for real, it will replace Dark Wallet as the second most important creation in the history of man, behind Bitcoin of course. The petro-dollar will surely topple in the face of this invention.
Back in September, a Brazilian newspaper reported that the two inventors were arrested for supposedly receiving stolen goods. Apparently they had all of their equipment confiscated during the raid. The report says they were found to have two energy meters that belonged to a Brazilian energy cooperative.
The two said they were given the energy meters by an engineer of the cooperative. Their lawyers said they were going to file a corpus delicti motion, which means they don’t believe any crime has been committed because they were freely given the meters to use, and the engineer who gave them the meters had even published a report on the internet about it. The two were released on bail. The rumor mill says “that everything is fine now.” From the Peswiki notice, it appears that they are still in operation.
Here’s a video that apparently shows the device being used to power an industrial facility in Brazil. This video was published on October 3, 2013, not too long after the device went on sale. If this is a hoax, it’s a pretty damn elaborate one.
PESN is reporting that one of their people witnessed the Captor in operation first hand, stating that, “Fernando Lins, witnessed the Captor produce 169 kW (797 A at 212 V) while being powered from a 12-V battery through a 2,000-Watt inverter that was providing the Captor with just 1,650 W (7.5 A at 220 V) — a gain of more than a hundred times!”
Related News (1/21/2014): BlackLight Power Announces 10 Mega Watt Free Energy Device
Kepler searches for planets by measuring stellar brightness dips caused when a planet passes in front of a star, briefly dimming the star’s light. This technique, called the transiting method, is more than 90 percent accurate, but sometimes a nonplanet can fool the telescope. One of the most common reasons for a “false positive” is an eclipsing binary—a pair of orbiting stars that sometimes cross in front of one another from our perspective—lying along the same line of sight as the foreground star Kepler is studying. Eclipsing binaries dim when one star passes in front of the other, mimicking the dimming effect a planet would have.
Stars with a single planet can be hard to distinguish from eclipsing binaries. But multiplanet systems are far less likely to be frauds. “It happens, but it’s unlikely that you have two eclipsing binaries in the background of the same star,” says Francois Fressin of the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass., who was not involved in the study. “That simple fact tremendously increases the odds that they are bona fide planets.” It is also possible to have an eclipsing binary and a star with a planet lying right on top of one another, albeit extremely unlikely. “Based on that argument we started to get into the statistics to see if we can quantify that and see how many we can pull out and say with very good confidence they are validated planets,” Rowe says.
About 20 percent of the candidate planets Kepler finds inhabit systems with multiple worlds. Among this group, Rowe and his colleagues tried to weed out the small number that were likely to be false signals by examining the light signature of the candidate planets. The light from a single planetary system would be centered on one point, the parent star. An eclipsing binary in the background, however, would probably not lie exactly behind the main star, but would be offset by a small distance. When this binary blinks out as one star crosses the other, the center of the light in the field of view should shift over to the side, creating a signature called a moving centroid. “The moving centroids are the ones where we’re fairly sure they are false positives, and then we have a subset, the majority of them, that we are very confident are planetary systems and show no sign of blends,” Rowe says.
The idea that multiplanet systems are easier to validate is not new, and researchers have previously studied how to winnow out the small number of false positives. “I made this argument [in 2011] but now it has been worked out in careful detail,” says David Latham of the CfA. “Jason has done a really nice job.”
The new cache of planets is extremely unlikely to harbor imposters, but they are not “confirmed planets,” in the traditional sense. That requires measuring the parent star’s motion to determine how much the planets’ gravitational tugging causes it to wobble, revealing the planets’ mass. “Even though we can be very confident that these objects are real planets, the only information we have right now on their physical properties is their size (radius) and expected equilibrium temperature (which depends on the distance to their parent star, which is known),” says Guillermo Torres of the CfA.
Among the new trove of planets: a small, potentially rocky world; an odd binary star system where each star has planets of its own; and cramped systems where the multiple planets are each gravitationally tugging one another around. “Of course we have every type of planetary system in our validated set that people can think of, except the perfect Earth analogue,” Rowe says. For now, that remains Kepler’s holy grail.
*Editor’s Note (2/26/14): The tally of 719 exoplanet validations announced in the quote was restated as 715 by the Kepler team shortly after this story was posted.
New research from the Aerospace Institute of the University of Stuttgart in Germany supports the theory that water has a memory, a claim that could change our whole way of looking at the world.
Does water have memory? Can it retain an “imprint” of energies to which it has been exposed?
This theory was first proposed by the late French immunologist Dr. Jacques Benveniste, in a controversial article published in 1988 in Nature, as a way of explaining how homeopathy works.
Benveniste’s theory has continued to be championed by some and disputed by others.
The video clip below, from the Oasis HD Channel, shows some fascinating recent experiments with water “memory” from the Aerospace Institute of the University of Stuttgart in Germany.
The results with the different types of flowers immersed in water are particularly evocative.
If Benveniste is right, just think what that might mean. More than 70 percent of our planet is covered in water.
The human body is made of 60 percent water; the brain, 70 percent; the lungs, nearly 90 percent.
Our energies might be traveling out of our brains and bodies and into those of other living beings of all kinds through imprints on this magical substance.
In quantum physics—the scientific study of the nature of physical reality—there is plenty of room for interpretation within the realm of what is known. The most popular mainstream interpretation, the Copenhagen interpretation, has as one of its central tenets the concept of wave function collapse. That is to say, every event exists as a “wave function” which contains every possible outcome of that event, which “collapses”—distilling into the actual outcome, once it is observed. For example, if a room is unobserved, anything and everything that could possibly be in that room exists in “quantum superposition”—an indeterminate state, full of every possibility, at least until someone enters the room and observes it, thereby collapsing the wave function and solidifying the reality.
The role of the observer has long been a source of contention for those who disagree with the theory. The strongest competition to this interpretation, and probably the second most popular mainstream interpretation (meaning, a lot of incredibly smart people think it’s a sound theory) is called the Everett interpretation after Hugh Everett, who first proposed it in 1957. It’s known colloquially as the Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI), because it postulates simply that the wave function never collapses; it simply branches into its own unique world-line, resulting in every possible outcome of every situation existing in physical reality. If you’re having a hard time getting your head around that statement (and the fact that it’s held to be correct by the likes ofStephen Hawking), allow us to spell out some of the implications for you—but first, you may want to plug your ears to hold your brains in.
10. THERE IS A MULTIVERSE, AN INFINITE NUMBER OF PARALLEL PHYSICAL REALITIES
You’re probably familiar with the concept of “alternate universes,” and if so, probably because you’ve seen it in fiction. After all, one of the very first instances of the concept appeared in DC comics, first touched upon in a couple of issues of Wonder Woman, but firmly established in a 1961 issue ofThe Flash. The fictional “Multiverse” concept established by DC, and taken further by Marvel, is simply the concept that there exists infinite alternate realities, each containing separate and unique versions of their characters, which exist outside one another and often cross over.
This is the Many Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics in a nutshell (without the crossing over, so far as we know). It states that since the wave function never collapses, every possible outcome of any event is realized in a separate and non-communicating physical reality, which actually exists alongside our own. It is interesting to note that this seemingly coincidental use of alternate realities, perfectly describing MWI, was put forth in a fictional medium just four years after Everett’s initial proposal of the interpretation. If MWI is correct, it is certainly not a coincidence—for fiction may be more than just made-up stories, as we’ll see later.
At any rate, this means that there is a version of you whose car broke down this morning, forcing you to take the bus (or, if that happened this morning, then vice versa). There’s also a version of you who was attacked by a dive-bombing kamikaze bald eagle, for this doesn’t just apply to mundane stuff; as a necessary consequence of Many Worlds, it must hold that…
9. HIGHLY UNUSUAL, UNLIKELY EVENTS MUST HAPPEN
Let’s consider an NFL football game being played. Assume that every time the quarterback throws the ball, there is a gigantic invisible die being rolled, a die which contains an infinite amount of values. The most common, likely outcomes—receiver catches the ball and scores, catches the ball but gets tackled, ball is intercepted, and so on—are assigned to a very high number, perhaps billions, of values. Very unlikely outcomes—say, the ball bounces off of the sole of the sprinting receiver’s shoe as he is hit by a linebacker, is barely scooped up off the turf by a running back, who somehow eludes all the tacklers and scores—are assigned to a low number of values. But crucially, they are still assigned.
MWI concludes that all values are rolled in some timeline somewhere, even the most unlikely ones—and inevitably, the timeline where the low-probability value gets rolled will be ours. As evidenced by the play described above, which totally happened and decided the outcome of a divisional playoff game.
And there is no ceiling of improbability, other than physics—whatever could possibly occur.
We have no way of knowing whether or not even those physical laws remain consistent across all possible world-lines, because we unfortunately can’t communicate with or visit them to ask. So even when confronted with circumstances that appear to be impossible, like a glowing ball of light that shoots fireballs at a police helicopter, or a missing woman unknowingly standing in the background of a photo being taken of her family for a newspaper story about her disappearance, it helps to remember that nothing is impossible on a large enough scale—indeed, given an infinite number of chances, literally anything you can imagine is not only possible, but inevitable. And just as inevitably, the impossible or unimaginable—given billions upon billions of chances—will happen here in our world-line. Which leads to a couple of interesting observations about human nature…
8. YOU HAVE DONE AND/OR WILL DO EVERYTHING YOU COULD EVER CONCEIVE OF
If you find it impossible to imagine a man inexplicably killing a bunch of people for no reason, or someone surviving injuries that would destroy a normal person five times over, or a pilot managing to land an airplane with all controls restricted or disabled without incurring any major injuries, you may be finding it a little less impossible now—considering what we know about how probability works in a Multiverse. But as soon as we begin to apply this to ourselves personally, the implications threaten to become overwhelming; for there are billions of versions of you—all of which are undeniably you—but many of which are very, very different from the “you” of this world-line.
The differences between those versions are as staggering and vast as your imagination, and the reality of their existence forces us to examine human nature a bit differently. Of course, you would never kill anybody (we hope), but have you ever thought about it? There is a world-line where you did. In fact, there’s a world-line where you’re the worst mass murderer ever. Conversely, there’s another where your tireless efforts and dedication to the cause brought about world peace. Did you have a band in high school? That band is the dominant musical force on the planet, somewhere. Have you always kind of wondered what would have happened had you mustered the guts to ask out that one girl or guy that one time? Well, you get the idea.
This could actually explain a lot: strong feelings of deja vu, feelings of a close connection with someone you’ve never met, morbid fascinations with things that should repulse us, or even instances of people acting strongly “out of character” in our own worldline. For as we will see, some may have a degree of “resonance” with other world-lines or versions of themselves, which can bring about the knowledge that:
7. YOU’RE NO DIFFERENT FROM ANYONE
Hinduism, along with some other schools of religious and philosophical thought, teaches the concept of reincarnation—that we as human beings manifest physically on Earth multiple times, that we can learn from our past and future “lives,” and that such learning is in fact the purpose of our existence. This belief system can be seen as an intuitive understanding of the Multiverse; and given our previous assertion about you being a mass murderer, it can be comforting to know that the experience of all facets of human nature is an explicit part of our growth.
Of course, this is not to say that anyone should kill people or engage in any other immoral behavior—after all, the purpose of this continued cycle of learning (according to Hindu belief) is to eventually learn all that there is to learn, and transcend our physical existence. Ideally, we learned many lifetimes (world-lines) ago all there was to learn from indulging the dark side of our nature.
But the kicker here is that our experience is our experience (an idea we’ll get to in a little more detail shortly)—and that all of human experience must be realized by every one of us before we can move on to wherever it is we’re moving on to.
While some believe that our destination is a type of eventual godhood, wherein we all get to preside over a universe of our own creation, others believe that the cycle simply repeats—that once everything runs down and heat death results in the destruction of all realities, our accumulated knowledge will be used to restart the cycle and create the next Multiverse. Which, of course, means that…
6. ALL OF THIS MAY HAVE HAPPENED BEFORE (AND MAY HAPPEN AGAIN)
If reality is a continuous cycle—along the lines of “Big Bang, expansion, contraction, collapse, Big Bang again”—then, given what we believe about the Multiverse and its infinite world-lines, you have existed before. In fact, all the infinite versions of you have existed before, and will exist again—and the same goes for all of us, along with every possible idea, creation and situation throughout all of our past and future, across all realities.
In one fell swoop, this concept explains instances of both deja vu and strong feelings of predestination. Even if deja vu seems meaningless and random, and the premonition turns out to be incorrect, these things are only true of our particular world-line—and it appears that some people (or all people, just to varying degrees) are able to achieve some degree of “resonance” with alternate world-lines—another concept that first appeared in comic books.
Indeed, one of the more common forms of deja vu involves experiencing an event which we recognize from having previously dreamed it. While seen by some as precognition, this really suggests resonance with alternate (or identical but previous) world-lines—especially when you consider that the“dream world” may be seen as an alternate world-line itself, and one just as real as the waking world.
Of course, if everything that exists or will exist has already existed, this leads to the conclusion that…
5. THERE ARE NO NEW STORIES, SONGS, EVENTS OR ANYTHING ELSE
Many writers of stories, songs and other artistic types describe a feeling of the pieces that they craft already existing, fully formed, waiting for the artist to come along and excavate them like fossils. In an infinite Multiverse, this makes perfect sense, for this is exactly what the pieces are.
Art is a uniquely human endeavor, and one that strives to communicate aspects of the human experience that may be difficult or impossible to communicate by other means. While it is not possible to accurately describe in any language what love “feels like,” there are plenty of ways to communicate this in art—indeed, it is through artistic expressions that resonate with us (that word again) that many of us develop our first notions of the nature of love—and that’s only one example. How should it be possible for an artist to communicate effectively, through a story, song or painting, an emotion that the reader, listener or observer has never felt before?
In our Multiverse, this is explained by the fact that these expressions of human emotion, thought, and perspective have essentially always existed, for as long as the impulses that spawned them have existed. This very piece of writing, which has been written before in order to guide another version of you to knowledge that you already have, can stand as a perfect example.
For that matter, consider the possibility that stories aren’t just stories. The Marvel Comics Multiverse acknowledges the existence of our world-line, one where superheroes don’t exist but are merely stories in books and movies. It could very well be that—since physical laws may be very different in other world-lines—these are not stories at all, but actual people and events transcribed from other realities. This goes for anything ever “imagined” or “created”—there exist world-lines where Hogwarts School and Harry Potter, Camp Crystal Lake and Jason Voorhees, Gotham City and Batman, all exist in physical reality.
And if you’re thinking that this line of reasoning—everything exists, nothing is ever created—implies that nothing is ever destroyed, well.
4. YOU ARE TECHNICALLY IMMORTAL
That is exactly what it implies. The fact of our immortality in a Multiverse can be illustrated in various ways. For one thing, the First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy (such as the electrical charges generated by your brain, or the heat your body produces) cannot be created or destroyed, but simply changes form—implying that the energy that powers your body must go somewhere when it leaves, and that consciousness cannot be destroyed, but is infinite. For another, consider the thought experiment known as Quantum Immortality.
In this experiment (preceded by “thought” for a reason; for crying out loud, don’t try this), an experimenter sits in front of a device which is programmed, with 50/50 probability, to either discharge a device which kills the experimenter, or produce a click (in which case, of course, the experimenter survives). In the second case, the experimenter and all observers experience the same outcome- a click, and nothing else. But in the first—since (assuming MWI is correct) it is not possible for the experimenter to experience termination of consciousness (because consciousness is infinite)—while any observers will see the experimenter killed, the experimenter himself will experience the first outcome, the harmless click, on another world-line. Said experimenter can never experience a different outcome, and thus—no matter how unlikely it becomes after repeated attempts—will always survive the experiment, from his point of view.
This means that while we will all experience dying, we will never experience death—the termination of our consciousness. How can this be? It calls into question the very nature of consciousness, which leads us to the very real possibility that…
3. WE ARE A PROJECTION OF OURSELVES
In the late 1970s, physicist David Bohm formulated a theory describing what he called the Implicate and Explicate orders of existence. This theory, which is consistent with MWI, states that there is an enfolded or “Implicate” order of existence which encapsulates all of consciousness, and that there is a corresponding “Explicate” order of existence which comprises all that we physically see and experience, and is the projection of the enfolded “Implicate” order.
Bohm arrived at the controversial conclusion (along with physicist Karl Pribram, who arrived at the same conclusion independently) that the entirety of observable existence is basically the mother of all holograms. Just as a laser filtered through an encoded film produces a hologram, our collective energy of the implicate order (the laser) filtered through our human consciousness (the film) produces the explicate, physical reality (hologram).
Michael Talbot’s excellent book The Holographic Universe examines this and many other aspects of Bohm and Pribram’s theories in detail, but the overarching and inescapable conclusion—which you have likely already drawn yourself—is that:
2. WE COLLECTIVELY CREATE PHYSICAL REALITY
If the Explicate is but a “projection” of the Implicate, then we—our physical selves, and indeed all of physical reality—are a “projection” of our true, unfiltered consciousness. One that we all play a hand in creating, whether we know it or not, all the time.
This one notion explains practically everything that “can’t be explained” about the world we see. Supernatural phenomena, meaningful coincidences, psychic activity—literally anything and everything makes sense when one realizes that this reality is essentially a dream, dreamed by the most powerful consciousness imaginable.
If this is the true nature of physical reality—as suggested for centuries by Hindu scholars, intuited by generations of artists and philosophers, and articulated as well as possible by our most brilliant scientific minds—then there is only one statement left to be made. Probably not coincidentally, one that was made previously as a seemingly throwaway lyric in a 1967 song, by one of our greatest artists…
1. NOTHING IS REAL
Throughout the history of artistic and philosophical expression, one concept rises to the surface, especially in works that are particularly influential or have a great deal of longevity. From “Strawberry Fields Forever” to Chinese philosopher Zhuangzi’s butterfly dream, to Descartes’ assertion that “I think, therefore I am” to Bill Hicks’ great “Life Is A Ride” speech, and even inchildren’s nursery rhymes—life is but a dream. A powerful dream, and one containing an infinite number of lessons for us—but a dream nonetheless.
After all, if everything—Atlantis, Luke Skywalker, your neighbor Bill—is as real as everything else, then what is reality but what we perceive? And what is our perception, if not our creation?
I know that we have to process a lot here, but do keep in mind that there are almost certainly billions of versions of you mulling over the answer to this question; and that given billions of chances to find the answer, one of your versions eventually will—as will we all.
[PRESS RELEASE 14/01/2014] New research from Karolinska Institutet shows that the final stage of the normal inflammatory process may be disrupted in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. A study published in the journal Alzheimer’s & Dementia shows that levels in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of the molecules necessary for tissue recovery through the clearance of harmful inflammatory substances are lower than normal in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The study also showed association between the lower levels of these molecules with impaired memory function.
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, eventually leading to neuronal death associated with an increasing degree of memory impairment. As with other neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s is characterised by an inflammatory process in the brain. Prolonged inflammation with the release of inflammatory and toxic substances can cause further damage and neuronal death. The inflammatory process normally ends in what is known as resolution. This is an active process regulated by certain molecules, so called specialized pro-resolving mediators, where the tissue is cleared from microorganisms, debris from dead cells via an uptake mechanism (phagocytosis), and where the release of growth factors stimulates tissue repair.
Together with colleagues in the United States, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now shown that the levels of resolution-regulating molecules in the brain and in the cerebrospinal fluid are lower in Alzheimer’s disease than normal. The researchers have also shown that the lower levels of these molecules correlate with a lower degree of cognitive function, that is, memory capacity. The results are based on analyses of cerebrospinal fluid from 15 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 21 control subjects. The researchers also analysed brain tissue from 10 Alzheimer’s patients and 10 control subjects.
“Our hypothesis is that stimulation of resolution of inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease may result in reduced neuronal death in the brain, and in turn have a beneficial effect in disease progression and cognition. This is an entirely new approach and provides the opportunity to develop new treatment principles for Alzheimer’s disease,” says Professor Marianne Schultzberg, who led the study at the Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society.
In ongoing studies, the researchers are now investigating how the pro-resolving molecules affect neuronal death in cell cultures, and whether treatment in animal experiments with these substances can prevent neurodegeneration and improve memory functions. The pro-resolving molecules identified so far are derivatives of omega-3 fatty acids, which constitute a popular food supple-ment that has been ascribed several health benefits, and have received attention for beneficial effects also on factors related to Alzheimer’s disease, in line with the new results described above. In previous studies, the researchers behind these new findings have shown that omega-3 also stimulates cells to take up amyloid-beta, a protein that kills neurons and occurs in the brain in the form of plaques in Alzheimer’s disease.
The research was funded with support, among others, from the Swedish Research Council, Swedish Brain Power, Stockholm Community Council, the Chinese Scholarship Council, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Stiftelsen för Gamla Tjänarinnor, Alzheimerfonden, the Gun and Bertil Stohne Foundation, the Petrus and Augusta Hedlund Foundation.
The Trinity – Not a “Platonic” solid, but certainly an important one at that.
Upon reading the article below, at first I was a little confused. Primarily because sometimes when Mathematicians find stuff out, it’s very left-brained, very mathematical, and often leaves me pondering what the shape truly means, and how it relates to myself and the world around me in a more female, emotional, thought-based way.
What implications does this geometry have on my life?
You might remember the recent Spirit Science video about the trinity– fun fact about that – it’s technically not a shape that can exist with straight lines, thus it cannot be a “platonic” solid. It certainly is a solid though, and as we theorized in the video – is it the geometry of a straight line itself?
Regardless of that, anything to do with geometry is incredibly exciting to me, especially when it’s relateable to our everyday world. Although this new discovery may not have specific relatable attributes to the way we live our lives in an immediate sense, it does relate a lot to the molecular structures of everything, including (as noted at the bottom of the article), viruses and diseases.
Perhaps through awareness of this structure, we can more accurately match the vibration of viruses, and cure more diseases and create more healing on this planet.
(Now, it’s probably more easier said than done, if only because… well, you know :P)
Now, as you’re looking at the pictures below, notice what these geometries are made of, and why they are important. When you break it down, it’s individual shapes composed of 5 and 6 sided shapes (Pentagons & Hexagons), arranged in a rather elegant pattern…
It’s much more complex than the platonic basics, of course, but nonetheless an important building block, and piece to understanding our world.
After 400 years, mathematicians
find a new class of solid shapes
By Akshat Rathi, The Conversation
The work of the Greek polymath Plato has kept millions of people busy for millennia. A few among them have been mathematicians who have obsessed about Platonic solids, a class of geometric forms that are highly regular and are commonly found in nature.
Since Plato’s work, two other classes of regular convex polyhedra, as the collective of these shapes are called, have been found: Archimedian solids and Kepler solids. Nearly 400 years after the last class was described, researchers claim that they may have now invented a new, fourth class, which they call Goldberg polyhedra. Also, they believe that their rules show that an infinite number of such classes could exist.
Platonic love for geometry
Regular convex polyhedra need to have certain characteristics. First, each of the sides of the polyhedra needs to be of the same length. Second, the shape must be completely solid: that is, it must have a well-defined inside and outside that is separated by the shape itself. Third, any point on a line that connects two points in a shape must never fall outside the shape.
Platonic solids, the first class of such shapes, are well known. They consist of five different shapes: tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron. They have four, six, eight, twelve and twenty faces, respectively.
Platonic solids in ascending order of number of faces.
These highly regular structures are commonly found in nature. For instance, the carbon atoms in a diamond are arranged in a tetrahedral shape. Common salt and fool’s gold (iron sulfide) form cubic crystals, and calcium fluoride forms octahedral crystals.
The new discovery comes from researchers who were inspired by finding such interesting polyhedra in their own work that involved the human eye. Stan Schein at the University of California in Los Angeles was studying the retina of the eye when he became interested in the structure of protein called clathrin. Clathrin is involved in moving resources inside and outside cells, and in that process it forms only a handful number of shapes. These shapes intrigued Schein, who ended up coming up with a mathematical explanation for the phenomenon.
During this work, Schein came across the work of 20th century mathematician Michael Goldberg who described a set of new shapes, which have been named after him, as Goldberg polyhedra. The easiest Goldberg polyhedron to imagine looks like a blown-up football, as the shape is made of many pentagons and hexagons connected to each other in a symmetrical manner (see image to the left).
However, Schein believes that Goldberg’s shapes – or cages, as geometers call them – are not polyhedra. “It may be confusing because Goldberg called them polyhedra, a perfectly sensible name to a graph theorist, but to a geometer, polyhedra require planar faces,” Schein said.
Instead, in a new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Schein and his colleague James Gayed have described that a fourth class of convex polyhedra, which given Goldberg’s influence they want to call Goldberg polyhedra, even at the cost of confusing others.
Blown up dodecahedron. stblaize
A crude way to describe Schein and Gayed’s work, according to David Craven at the University of Birmingham, “is to take a cube and blow it up like a balloon” – which would make its faces bulge (see image to the right). The point at which the new shapes breaks the third rule – which is, any point on a line that connects two points in that shape falls outside the shape – is what Schein and Gayed care about most.
Craven said, “There are two problems: the bulging of the faces, whether it creates a shape like a saddle, and how you turn those bulging faces into multi-faceted shapes. The first is relatively easy to solve. The second is the main problem. Here one can draw hexagons on the side of the bulge, but these hexagons won’t be flat. The question is whether you can push and pull all these hexagons around to make each and everyone of them flat.”
During the imagined bulging process, even one that involves replacing the bulge with multiple hexagons, as Craven points out, there will be formation of internal angles. These angles formed between lines of the same faces – referred to as dihedral angle discrepancies – means that, according to Schein and Gayed, the shape is no longer a polyhedron. Instead they claimed to have found a way of making those angles zero, which makes all the faces flat, and what is left is a true convex polyhedron (see image below).
Their rules, they claim, can be applied to develop other classes of convex polyhedra. These shapes will be with more and more faces, and in that sense there should be an infinite variety of them.
Playing with shapes
Such mathematical discoveries don’t have immediate applications, but often many are found. For example, dome-shaped buildings are never circular in shape. Instead they are built like half-cut Goldberg polyhedra, consisting of many regular shapes that give more strength to the structure than using round-shaped construction material.
Only the one in the right bottom corner is a convex polyhedra. Stan Schein/PNAS
However, there may be some immediate applications. The new rules create polyhedra that have structures similar to viruses or fullerenes, a carbon isotope. The fact that there has been no “cure” against influenza, or common flu, shows that stopping viruses is hard. But if we are able to describe the structure of a virus accurately, we get a step closer to finding a way of fighting them.
If nothing else, Schein’s work will invoke mathematicians to find other interesting geometric shapes, now that regular convex polyhedra may have been done with.
The Voice of Russia and other Russian sources are reporting that a 300 million year old piece of aluminum machinery has been found in Vladivostok. Experts say a gear rail appears to be manufactured, and not the result of natural forces.
According to Yulia Zamanskaya, when a resident of Vladivostok was lighting the fire during a cold winter evening, he found a rail-shaped metal device which was pressed in one of the pieces of coal that the man used to heat his home. Mesmerized by his discovery, the responsible citizen decided to seek help from the scientists of Primorye region.
After the metal object was studied by the leading experts, the man was shocked to learn about the assumed age of his discovery. The metal artefact was supposedly 300 million years old, and the scientists suggested that it was not created by nature, but was rather manufactured by someone.
The question of who might have made an aluminum gear in the dawn of time remains unanswered.
The find was very much like a toothed metal rail, created artificially. It was like parts which are often used in microscopes, various technical and electronic devices.
Nowadays, finding a strange artifact in coal is a relatively frequent occurrence. The first discovery of this sort was made in 1851 when the workers in one of the Massachusetts mines extracted a zinc silver-incrusted vase from a block of coal, which dated all the way back to the Cambrian era, which was approximately 500 million years ago.
Sixty one years later, American scientists from Oklahoma discovered an iron pot which was pressed into a piece of coal aged 312 million years old.
Then, in 1974, an aluminum assembly part of unknown origin, was found in a sandstone quarry in Romania.
Reminiscent of a hammer or a support leg of a spacecraft, the piece dated back to the Jurassic era, and could not have been manufactured by a human.
All of these discoveries not only puzzled the experts but also undermined the most fundamental doctrines of modern science.
Another question that interests Russian scientists is whether the aluminum alloy is of Earthly origin. It is known from the study of meteorites that there exists extra-terrestrial aluminum-26 which subsequently breaks down to magnesium-26.
The presence of 2 percent of magnesium in the alloy might well point to the alien origin of the aluminum artefact. It could also be evidence of some past, unknown civilization on Earth. Nonetheless, further testing is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
It is the first such finding in coal made in Russia, according to anomaly researcher and biologist Valery Brier, who took microscopic samples of the aluminum for testing. Valery Brier performed X-ray diffraction analysis of the metal.
It showed very pure aluminum with microimpurities of magnesium of only 2-4 percent. Analysis was also conducted by Senior Fellow of the St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics Igor Okunev who confirmed the age of the material according to Natalia Ostrovsky
While exploring core samples (rock samples) that were raised from a 9-meter depth during the drilling of the seabed to support the bridge on a Russian island near Cape Nazimova, strange metal alloys were discovered that were “preserved” in the prehistoric sandstone (240 million years old).
The pieces of special alloys had an unusual composition, and were clearly not used in the drilling machinery.
Not so long ago in Russia a mechanical device was found in volcanic rock which was dated 400 million years before the current era (B.C.E)
It was found on the remote Kamchatka Peninsula, 150 miles from the village of Tigil, by archaeologists at the University of St. Petersburg, among some very strange fossils. The reliability of the finds has been certified.
According to archaeologist Yuri Golubev, the find amazed experts, as it was some kind of a machine.
Christof Lehmann (nsnbc) , – Rumors that Alien life forms have visited Earth have circulated for decades. “Disclosure” has been forecast with regular intervals while others conclude that “the world´s major governments will never disclose” the presence of alien life because of political and cultural implications. Today we can confirm: Alien Lifeforms are visiting Earth and have done so for a very long time”.
The Aliens, discovered by the Sheffield scientists have no slanted eyes, like this one, but may change the way we perceive ourselves as individuals and as human beings, and our place in the universeaniways.
No, the Aliens, or at least the ones which have been disclosed, do not have slanted eyes or look like anything even close to to the so-called grays. Neither do they, or at least the ones which have been discovered and “disclosed”, have known, telepathic abilities, abduct, anal probe, or provide spiritual guidance to human beings.
Their discovery, however, has none the less the potential to bring about a paradigm change with regards to how human beings perceive themselves, one another, and our place on earth and in the vastness of the universe.
Behind the discovery of ”the Aliens” are researchers from the University of Sheffield. The Sheffield scientists have found evidence of microscopic organisms, living 27 km high in the Earth’s atmosphere, “discloses” an article in the Journal of Cosmology.
Milton Wainwright, from the Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, who is the author of the “Alien Study”, said:
“Most people will assume that these biological particles must just have drifted up to the stratosphere from Earth, but it is generally accepted that a particle of that size cannot be lifted from Earth to heights of, for example, 27 km. … The only possibility might be a violent volcanic eruption that pushed those particles up, but none of that has happened during the three years that the scientists have been collecting samples. … We can only conclude that the biological entities originated from space”.
Unless new research confirms hitherto unknown mechanisms to elevate particles from Earth to the alien height of, for example 27 km, which would be the only logical alternative to Wainwright’s hypothesis, is must be considered as confirmed and disclosed, that Alien life forms are and have been visiting Earth for a considerable amount of time. Wainwright’s team concludes:
“Our conclusion then is that life is continually arriving to Earth from space, life is not restricted to this planet and it almost certainly did not originate here”.
The discovery of the “Aliens” or “Extraterrestrial Biological Entities” at a height of 27 km in Earth’s stratosphere gives renewed credence to the theory of pan-spermia, meaning that life forms can travel throughout the vastness of the universe and so to speak “impregnate” environments which are conducivefor hosting and the development of life forms. The discovery might also solve other mysteries which have puzzled scientists. Such as the appearance of the first known life forms on Earth.
The first known life forms were single celled bacteria without a nucleus to hold their DNA. These prokaryotes can be found in the fossil record from about 4.0 billion years ago. About 2.0 billion years later bacteria with a nucleus, the eukaryotes appeared without any known evolutionary pathway from the one to the other.
The British Astrophysicist Fred Hoyle wrote in Darwin´s Black Box, that the likelihood of organic molecules spontaneously assembling themselves into a living organism is equal to the likelihood of a tornado sweeping through a junkyard and correctly assembling a Boeing 747. The discovery of the extraterrestrial biological entities, 27 km above sea level, may help answer many questions about the appearance of life on Earth, but it does not begin to answer whether a tornado had its chance in a universal junkyard or not.
Hiroshima – The impossibility to grasp the scale of human suffering and dehumanization
What the study seems to confirm is, that life is bound to exist throughout the universe and that we are not alone. There is someone out there, and the most though provoking aspect of the “Disclosure of Alien Life visiting Earth” is the following question.
How would a highly advanced civilization, which has survived its infancy and technological development to the degree that they are capable of traversing galaxies without blowing their planet and themselves to kingdom come first, perceive homo sapiens sapiens, the crown of evolution, creation or whatever one “believes in to be the truth”, and whose most preferred activity seems to be tribal warfare. Would they welcome our brand of universal friendship with open arms, or would they quarantine our planet until we have reached adulthood or blown ourselves away?