The highly advanced and mysterious ancient civilization of the Nok

The mysterious ancient civilization of the Nok - Nigeria


The remarkable civilization of the Nok was first discovered in 1928 when a wealth of unique terracotta artefacts was unearthed by tin miners in the southern part of Kaduna state in central Nigeria. Since then, extensive archaeological excavations and research into the Nok have revealed that they may have been the first complex civilization in West Africa, existing from at least 900 BC until their mysterious disappearance in around 200 AD.

The Nok were an extremely advanced society, with one of the most complex judicial systems of the time, and the earliest producers of life-sized terracotta in the Sub-Sahara.  Archaeologists have also found stone tools, rock paintings and iron implements, including fearsome spear points, bracelets, and small knives.

Terracotta Statues

But by far the most enigmatic and intriguing aspect of the Nok Culture were their Terracotta statues, described by the mémoire d’afrique, which houses a gallery of the statues, as “extraordinary, astonishing, ageless, timeless and almost extraterrestrial”.

The figures, which date back to at least 500 BC, are almost always people with large, mostly elongated heads with almond-shaped hollow looking eyes are parted lips. These unusual features are particularly perplexing considering that the statues have been constructed accurately with relative proportions of the head, body and feet, leading some to use the term ‘extraterrestrial-looking’ when describing them.

Microscopic inspection of the clay used in the terracotta shows it to be remarkably uniform over the whole Nok area, suggesting that the clay came from a single, yet-undiscovered source.  Not much is known about the purposes of these peculiar sculptures but some theories have suggested they were used as charms to prevent crop failure, illness and infertility, while others have suggested that they represent high status individuals who were worshipped by the people.

However, the construction of life-sized statues isn’t the only evidence of the advancement of their society. Research has revealed that the Nok people had a highly developed system of administration to ensure law and order.

Judicial System

It is a known fact that the Nok’s judicial system pre-dates the western judicial system. The Nok people created classes of courts used for adjudicating cases from minor civil cases, such as family disputes and false allegations, to criminal cases such as stealing, murder and adultery.  The people believed that every crime attracts a curse which was capable of destroying whole family and therefore must be uncovered to avoid the consequences.

The suspect was brought before an open court for traditional oath taking, which involved standing between two monoliths facing the sun, the most supreme god called Nom. The suspect then swore to tell the truth.  Cases that cannot be resolved in the open court are taken to the high court which sits within an enclosed shrine.

The court was presided over by the Chief Priest and various clan heads. Anyone found guilty was fined goats and chicken for sacrifice to the gods and local wine for the chief priest.  The town would then declare a day of celebration on which the people would thank the gods for their graces in successfully resolving the issue and averting doom for the people.

Disappearance

A sharp drop in the volume of pottery and terracotta in soil layers suggests that the once-thriving Nok population declined fairly rapidly and no evidence can be found of their existence after 200 AD, nor has any evidence been found which suggests a reason for their disappearance.  Some have suggested that overexploitation of natural resources and a heavy reliance on charcoal may have played a role, while others have said it could have been any number of different possibilities including climate change, a pandemic, invasion, epidemic or famine.

The Nok civilization left a remarkable cultural legacy for the people that followed after them, but there are still many unanswered questions about the Nok, from why they disappeared to the true purpose and nature of the unique and mysterious terracotta statues.

By April Holloway

Spectacular UFO Footage From NASA’s STS-48 Discovery Space Shuttle

When it comes to real footage of UFOs (unidentified flying objects), film from the 1991 NASA STS-48 Discovery Space Shuttle mission is definitely one at the top of the list. This footage is real, well documented, and has been the subject of rigorous scientific investigation by multiple researchers and institutions. (1)(2)(3)

The video below shows as many as a dozen objects moving in unusual fashion. Apart from that, the most fascinating part is when we see one object at a point near the horizon, as a flash occurs, followed by another object or stream that moves rapidly across the field of view, the object shoots off into space.

Explanations have varied from intelligent extraterrestrial spacecraft, to space weather events and more. There is however, no definite explanation, and many of them don’t take into account the dozens of objects that are captured on film.

“There is abundant evidence that we are being contacted, that civilizations have been visiting us for a very long time. That their appearance is bizarre from any kind of traditional materialistic western point of view. That these visitors use the technologies of consciousness, they use toroids, co-rotating magnetic disks for their propulsion systems, that seems to be a common denominator of the UFO phenomenon” (4) –Dr Brian O’leary, Fmr NASA Astronaut, Princeton Physics Professor

This might be some of the evidence O’leary (quoted above) is talking about. I have personally had a craft sighting that looked exactly like this one, minus the flash of light. I saw the object travel towards me, stop and then shoot up into space at a ninety degree angle a second or two after it stopped.

Dozens of governments have declassified thousands of pages of UFO related documents within the past few years. As a result, we’ve seen high-ranking military and political personnel step forward and share what they believe to be true. Not long ago, Canada’s former Minister of National Defence said that there are “at least 4 known alien species visiting our planet.”

The UFO subject continues to gain some much deserved attention as we move through 2014 and beyond.

 

 

Sources:

(1) http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_09_1_carlotto.pdf

(2) http://www.nicap.org/muj_kasher_sts48.htm

(3) http://www.carlotto.us/newfrontiersinscience/Papers/v04n04a/v04n04a.pdf

(4) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yO0T05kQkbs

– See more at: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2014/01/23/spectacular-ufo-footage-from-nasas-sts-48-discovery-space-shuttle/#sthash.5muw5kIP.dpuf

Graham Hancock: “New Archaeological Discoveries Uncover The Mysteries Of A Lost Civilization”

Alternative history author Graham Hancock (Fingerprints of the Gods) has been traveling the globe, investigating a number of ‘anomalous’ megalithic sites that seem to push the date of the first human civilisations back many years, such as Gobekli Tepe in Turkey and Gunung Padang in Indonesia. Though Graham’s new book about this topic isn’t due till next year, interested readers will definitely want to check out a new feature article, about his research so far, that has just gone live on his website: “From Indonesia To Turkey New Archaeological Discoveries Uncover The Mysteries Of A Lost Civilisation“. 

“Everything we’ve been taught about the origins of civilization may be wrong,” says Danny Natawidjaja, PhD, senior geologist with the Research Centre for Geotechnology at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences. “Old stories about Atlantis and other a great lost civilizations of prehistory, long dismissed as myths by archaeologists, look set to be proved true.”

I’m climbing with Dr Natawidjaja up the steep slope of a 300-ft high step-pyramid set amidst a magical landscape of volcanoes, mountains and jungles interspersed with paddy fields and tea plantations a hundred miles from the city of Bandung in West Java, Indonesia.

The pyramid has been known to archaeology since 1914 when megalithic structures formed from blocks of columnar basalt were found scattered amongst the dense trees and undergrowth that then covered its summit. Local people held the site to be sacred and called it Gunung Padang, the name it still goes by today, which means “Mountain of Light”, or “Mountain of Enlightenment”, in the local Sundanese language. The summit, where the megaliths were found arranged across five terraces had been used as a place of meditation and retreat since time immemorial, archaeologists were told, and again this remains true today.

However neither the archaeologists, nor apparently the locals realized the pyramid was a pyramid. It was believed to be a natural hill, somewhat modified by human activity, until Natawidjaja and his team began a geological survey here in 2011. By then the summit had long since been cleared and the megalithic terraces recognized to be ancient and man-made, but no radiocarbon dating was ever done and the previously accepted age of the site – about 1,500 to 2,500 BC — was based on guesswork rather than on excavations.

The first scientific radiocarbon dating was done by Natawidjaja himself on soils underlying the megaliths at or near the surface. The dates produced – around 500 to 1,500 BC – were very close to the archaeological guesswork and caused no controversy. However a surprise was in store as Natawidjaja and his team extended their investigation using tubular drills that brought up cores of earth and stone from much deeper levels.

First the drill cores contained evidence – fragments of columnar basalt – that man-made megalithic structures lay far beneath the surface. Secondly the organic materials brought up in the drill cores began to yield older and older dates – 3,000 BC to 5,000 BC, then 9,600 BC as the drills bit deeper, then around 11,000 BC, then, 15,000 BC and finally at depths of 90 feet and more an astonishing sequence of dates of 20,000 BC to 22,000 BC and earlier.

“This was not at all what my colleagues in the world of archaeology expected or wanted to hear” says Natawidjaja, who earned his PhD at Cal Tech in the United States and who, it becomes apparent, regards archaeology as a thoroughly unscientific discipline.

The problem is that those dates from 9,600 BC and earlier belong to the period that archaeologists call the “Upper Palaeolithic” and take us back deep into the last Ice Age when Indonesia was not a series of islands as it is today but was part of a vast southeast Asian continent dubbed “Sundaland” by geologists.

Click through to read the entire article.

GRAHAM HANCOCK’S “QUEST FOR THE LOST CIVILIZATION” **FULL MOVIE*

Remember too that you can find Graham on Facebook and on Twitter.

Credits: DailyGrail

MEXICAN GOVERNMENT RELEASES PROOF OF E.T.S AND ANCIENT SPACE TRAVEL

In what will soon be considered as the Holy Grail of extraterrestrial research, the Mexican government has released ancient documents proving the existence of E.T.’s once and for all.
CALAKMUL, MEXICO (INTELLIHUB) — Newly released Mayan documents, i.e. artifacts, dating back at least 1300-years reveal that the human race is not alone and highly advanced technologies including space travel have likely existed for quite some time.

Not only does this documentation released by the Mexican government show the existence of an explorer race, it may also reveal the roots of mankind.

Some consider the government’s presentation of the information to be a major step forward for humanity as the truth is finally being slowly let out. Hopefully this will prompt other governments around the world to be more forthcoming with such information, turning the tide in the UFO and extraterrestrial research community for good.

Sundance winner Juan Carlos Rulfo’s Revelations of the Mayans 2012 and Beyond also touches on such technology. “Producer Raul Julia-Levy said the documentary-makers were working in cooperation with the Mexican government for what he said was “the good of mankind”. He said the order to collaborate had come directly from the country’s president, Álvaro Colom Caballeros.

“Mexico will release codices, artifacts and significant documents with evidence of Mayan and extraterrestrial contact, and all of their information will be corroborated by archaeologists,” he said. “The Mexican government is not making this statement on their own – everything we say, we’re going to back it up.”

Caballeros himself was conspicuous by his absence from the statement released by Julia-Levy. So far, the minister of tourism for the Mexican state of Campeche, Luis Augusto García Rosado, appears to be the highest-ranking government official to go on record confirming the discovery of extraterrestrial life, but he’s not holding back.

In a statement, Rosado spoke of contact “between the Mayans and extraterrestrials, supported by translations of certain codices, which the government has kept secure in underground vaults for some time”. In a telephone conversation with the Wrap, he also spoke of “landing pads in the jungle that are 3,000 years old”.[2]

These secrets have been said to be “protected” by the mexican government for as long as 80-years.

Sources:

[1] The Mexican government reveals Mayan documents proving extraterrestrial contacts – Arcturius.org

[2] Mayan documentary to show ‘evidence’ of alien contact in ancient Mexico – TheGuardian.com

[3] Aliens and UFOs Depicted In Mayan Artifacts Released By Mexican Government – ConciusLifeNews.com

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Scientists Uncover The Very First ‘Official’ Proof Of Extraterrestrial Life

sri lankaEarlier this year, a group of scientists claimed with certainty that tiny fossils uncovered inside a meteorite found in Sri Lanka in late December 2012, are proof of extraterrestrial life. A paper was published in the Journal of Cosmology (1)(3) by Chandra Wickramasinghe. Wickramasinghe is the director of the Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology at the University of Buckingham in the U.K. The study was conducted alongside researchers at the School of Mathematics at Cardiff University and from the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

While reading this article, please keep in mind that there is already a large amount of evidence that supports the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life. Please browse through our exopolitics sections under the alternative news tab for more information on that.

They found “a microstructure and morphology characteristic of a wide class of terrestrial diatoms.” The group concluded that “the presence of structures of this kind in any extraterrestrial setting could be constructed as unequivocal proof of biology.” Cardiff University was asked to proof-check and analyze the findings, which it did, concluding that the samples were “unequivocally meteorites” and that the analysis of the material structure showed that algae-like fossils were native to it.

This is the first-ever evidence of extraterrestrial life found in a celestial body. The researchers used sophisticated methods like X-ray diffraction, triple oxygen isotope analysis and scanning electron microscopy.

In 1962, Hoyle and I pioneered the theory of carbon grains in space to replace the old ice grain theory. This was vehemently resisted by the astronomical community at the outset, but with the dawn of infrared spectroscopy, the ice grain theory gave way to the carbon dust theory. Over a few years, after a great deal of model-fitting, we came to the conclusion that material similar to biomaterial fitted all the available data in astronomy. We considered the possibility that microbiology had a universal character, and no observations in astronomy or new information from biology has provided contrary evidence.If only ideas that are considered orthodox are given support through award of grans or publication opportunities, it is certain that the progress of science will be stifled as it was throughout the middle ages – Wickramsinghe

English astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle along with Wickramasinghe co-developed a theory known as “panspermia,” which suggests that life exists throughout the universe and is distributed by meteoroids and asteroids. It’s quite a synchronicity that this meteorite found in Sri Lanka happened to fall in their lap, potentially proving their theory correct.

We conclude that the identification of fossilized diatoms in the Polonnaruwa meteorite is firmly established and unimpeachable. Since this meteorite is considered to be an extinct commentary fragment, the idea of microbial life carried within comets and the theory of cometary panspermia is thus vindicated. This was also the guess of the Sri Lankan geologists who first looked at the rock. I personally have no doubt whatsoever that this was a stone that fell from the skies – Wickramsinghe

This isn’t the first time that extraterrestrial life has been confirmed, according to Wickramasinghe. In an earlier paper (2) that he co-authored in 2012 titled “Non-terrestrial origin of life: a transformative research paradigm shift”  where the abstract reads:

Theories and hypotheses in science are continually subject to verification, critical re-evaluation, revision and indeed evolution, in response to new observations and discoveries. Theories of the origin of life have been more constrained than other scientific theories and hypotheses in this regard, through the force of social and cultural pressures. There has been a tendency to adhere too rigidly to a class of theory that demands a purely terrestrial origin of life. For nearly five decades evidence in favour of a non-terrestrial origin of life and panspermia has accumulated which has not been properly assessed. A point has now been reached that demands the serious attention of biologists to a possibly transformative paradigm shift of the question of the origin of life, with profound implications across many disciplines – Wickramsinghe

Just to reiterate, these scientists are claiming to have found fossilized biological structures in a Sri Lankan meteorite of extraterrestrial origin. The researchers say that tiny algae-like fossils found in meteorite fragments could not have originated on our planet. There have been critics that say the stone was of terrestrial origin, and the study addressees these concerns and debunks them with scientific evidence (1)(3).

Extraterrestrial Life and Intelligent Extraterrestrial Life

This is a very significant finding, it’s the first time that a direct scientific find of extraterrestrial life can be confirmed. You would think that it would make major headlines, but unfortunately it didn’t. As illustrated in an earlier paper (2), a point has now been reached that demands the serious attention of biologists to a possibly transformative paradigm shift on the question about the origin of life. It’s well known that theories about the origin of life have been very constrained, more so than other scientific theories and hypotheses due to the force of social and cultural pressures(2). The question of extraterrestrial life, and even beyond that, intelligent extraterrestrial life is currently playing a large role in a massive and transformative paradigm shift that is currently occurring on our planet.

On one hand, we have mainstream science looking for signs for extraterrestrial life, on the other hand we have a very large amount of evidence to suggest that intelligent extraterrestrial life has already been discovered -and that this shocking paradigm shifting information has been concealed from the public for over 70 years.  I use this clip a lot, but it’s a great statement made by a researcher who examined the subject from the perspective that not only has extraterrestrial life been discovered, but intelligent extraterrestrial life exists and is engaging with this planet and the human race. What do you think?

 

 

A lot of this ‘evidence’ has been provided and written about by many. Collective Evolution has multiple articles that provide official documentation as well as witness testimony from multiple sources. For more on the intelligent extraterrestrial life debate, please visit our “Exopolitics” section under our “Alternative News” tab.

Sources:

(1) http://journalofcosmology.com/JOC21/PolonnaruwaRRRR.pdf

(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23225070

(3) http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1303/1303.1845.pdf

http://rt.com/news/british-researchers-meteorite-fossils-167/

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/18/extraterresterial-life-exists-chandra-wickramasinghe_n_2500008.html

– See more at: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2013/09/16/extraterrestrial-fossils-uncovered-inside-meteorite-found-in-sri-lanka/#sthash.x9EOjZY5.dpuf