The Ground Breaking Mathematics That Proves Free Energy Is Possible Has Been Discovered

numbers_math_free _energyIt has been said that the ability to prove that free energy is possible is non-existent because it defies various physical laws. But what if those physical laws are not entirely correct? What if the mathematics that proves the possibility of free energy was just not known, suppressed or hidden? In the video below, Randy Powell discusses Vortex Based Mathematics, which is a concept he was taught by Marko Rodin. He suggests that this mathematics proves that free energy is possible.

On a side note, I remember hearing at one time in the last few years (in a video interview) that there was about 25 equations that help to prove the existence of systems such as free energy, and these 25 equations were purposely suppressed and removed from educational institutions. Unfortunately I have not been able to locate the source of this claim and so it sits as nothing but a memory of once coming across it. If anyone reading this happens to know what I’m talking about, please let me know in the comments.

Free Energy Research

At first glance it might be easy to brush this off as not being possible since one of the main objections going around about free energy is that it simply is not possible. This rumor is spreading with no real evidence and therefore it is important to look into the evidence that does exist to support it. Below will be one example followed by an article which illustrates many examples.

The Casimir Effect is a proven example of free energy. The Casimir Effect illustrates zero point or vacuum state energy, which predicts that two metal plates close together attract each other due to an imbalance in the quantum fluctuations. You can see a visual demonstration of this concept here. The implications of this are far reaching and have been written about extensively within theoretical physics by researchers all over the world. Today, we are beginning to see that these concepts are not just theoretical, but instead very practical and simply very suppressed.

Relatively recent proposals have been made in the literature for extracting energy and heat from electromagnetic zero-point radiation via the use of the Casimir force. The basic thermodynamics involved in these proposals is analyzed and clarified here, with the conclusion that yes, in principle, these proposals are correct.

For an in depth look at the science behind free energy check out this article which goes through the available scientific studies.

The video below is of a TEDx talk where Randy Powell describes the mathematics and its applications.


Scientists film how the brain makes memories for the first time ever

Scientists film how the brain makes memories for the first time ever

For the first time in history, scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have captured how our brain makes memories in video, watching how molecules morph into the structures that, at the end of the day, make who we are. If there’s a soul, this how it gets made.

Before this, Japanese scientists observed how a thought was formed, which was an entirely different process. According to the scientists, the has been a “technological tour de force:”

These insights into the molecular basis of memory were made possible by a technological tour de force never before achieved in animals: a mouse model developed at Einstein in which molecules crucial to making memories were given fluorescent “tags” so they could be observed traveling in real time in living brain cells.

The process, which has been documented in two Science papers, required researchers to “stimulate neurons from the mouse’s hippocampus, where memories are made and stored, and then watched fluorescently glowing beta-actin mRNA molecules form in the nuclei of neurons and travel within dendrites, the neuron’s branched projections.”

What they have found is fascinating: “mRNA in neurons is regulated through a novel process described as “masking” and “unmasking,” which allows beta-actin protein to be synthesized at specific times and places and in specific amounts.”

This is precisely how scientists imagined things worked, according to Doctor Robert Singer, the research papers’ senior author:

This observation that neurons selectively activate protein synthesis and then shut it off fits perfectly with how we think memories are made. Frequent stimulation of the neuron would make mRNA available in frequent, controlled bursts, causing beta-actin protein to accumulate precisely where it’s needed to strengthen the synapse.

It kind of sounds like a computer storing data bits into a hard drive!

Light Skin Genes Evolved More Recently Than Previously Thought – DNA Study

Light Skin Genes Europeans photo

Artistic depiction of dark skinned Europeans

AFRICANGLOBE – An ancient European hunter-gatherer man had dark skin and blue eyes, a new genetic analysis has revealed.

The analysis of the man, who lived in modern-day Spain only about 7,000 years ago, shows light-skin genes in Europeans evolved much more recently than previously thought.

The findings, which were detailed in the journal Nature, also hint that light skin evolved not to adjust to the lower-light conditions in Europe compared with Africa, but instead to the new diet that emerged after the agricultural revolution, said study co-author Carles Lalueza-Fox, a paleogenomics researcher at Pompeu Fabra University in Spain.

Sunlight Changes

Many scientists have believed that lighter skin gradually arose in Europeans starting around 40,000 years ago, soon after people left tropical Africa for Europe’s higher latitudes. The hunter-gatherer’s dark skin pushes this date forward to only 7,000 years ago, suggesting that at least some humans lived considerably longer than thought in Europe before losing the beautiful dark pigmentation that evolved under Africa’s sun.

“It was assumed that the lighter skin was something needed in high latitudes, to synthesize vitamin D in places where UV light is lower than in the tropics,” said Lalueza-Fox.

Scientists had assumed this was true because people need vitamin D for healthy bones, and can synthesize it in the skin with energy from the sun’s UV rays, but darker skin, like that of the hunter-gatherer man, prevents UV-ray absorption.

But the new discovery shows that latitude alone didn’t drive the evolution of Europeans’ light skin. If it had, light skin would have become widespread in Europeans millennia earlier, Lalueza-Fox said.

Mysterious Find

In 2006, hikers discovered two male skeletons buried in a labyrinthine cave known as La Braña-Arintero, in the Cantabrian Mountains of Spain.

At first, officials thought the skeletons may have been recent murder victims. But then, an analysis revealed the skeletons were about 7,000 years old, and had no signs of trauma. The bodies were covered with red soil, characteristic of Paleolithic burial sites, Lalueza-Fox said.

At the time of the discovery, genetic techniques weren’t advanced enough to analyze the skeletons. Several years later, the team revisited the skeletons and extracted DNA from a molar tooth in one skeleton. (The other skeleton had been sitting in water for millennia, so his DNA was more degraded, Lalueza-Fox said.)

Blue Eyes, Dark Skin

The new analysis of that DNA now shows the man had the gene mutation for blue eyes, but not the European mutations for lighter skin.

The DNA also shows that the man was more closely related to modern-day northern Europeans than to southern Europeans.

The discovery may explain why baby blues are more common in Scandinavia. It’s been thought that poor conditions in northern Europe delayed the agricultural revolution there, so Scandinavians may have more genetic traces of their hunter-gatherer past — including a random blue-eye mutation that emerged in the small population of ancient hunter-gatherers, Lalueza-Fox said.

Skin Changes

The finding implies that for most of their evolutionary history, Europeans were not what many people today would call ‘Caucasian’, said Guido Barbujani, president of the Associazione Genetica Italiana in Ferrara, Italy, who was not involved in the study.

Instead, “what seems likely, then, is that the dietary changes accompanying the so-called Neolithic revolution, or the transition from food collection to food production, might have caused, or contributed to cause, this change,” Barbujani said.

In the food-production theory, the cereal-rich diet of Neolithic farmers lacked vitamin D, so Europeans rapidly lost their dark-skin pigmentation only once they switched to agriculture, because it was only at that point that they had to synthesize vitamin D from the sun more readily.

Scientists Finally Admit There Is a Second, Secret DNA Code Which Controls Genes

The fascinating and recent discovery of a new, second DNA code last week further lends credence to what metaphysical scientists have been saying for millennia — the body speaks two different languages.


Since the genetic code was deciphered in the 1960s, researchers have assumed that it was used exclusively to write information about proteins.

But biologists have suspected for years that some kind of epigenetic inheritance occurs at the cellular level. The different kinds of cells in our bodies provide an example. Skin cells and brain cells have different forms and functions, despite having exactly the same DNA.


The human genome is packed with at least four million gene switches that reside in bits of DNA that once were dismissed as “junk” but it turns out that so-called junk DNA plays critical roles in controlling how cells, organs and other tissues behave. The discovery, considered a major medical and scientific breakthrough, has enormous implications for human health and consciousness because many complex diseases appear to be caused by tiny changes in hundreds of gene switches.

As scientists delved into the “junk” — parts of the DNA that are not actual genes containing instructions for proteins — they discovered a complex system that controls genes. At least 80 percent of this DNA is active and needed. Another 15-17 percent has higher functions scientists are still decoding.

Recent findings in the journal Science may have big implications for how medical experts use the genomes of patients to interpret and diagnose diseases, researchers said.


The genetic code uses a 64-letter alphabet called codons. Dr Stamatoyannopoulos with co-authors were stunned to discover that some codons, which they called duons, can have two meanings. One describes how proteins are made, and the other instructs the cell on how genes are controlled.

The newfound genetic code within deoxyribonucleic acid, the hereditary material that exists in nearly every cell of the body, was written right on top of the DNA code scientists had already cracked.


Rather than concerning itself with proteins, this one instructs the cells on how genes are controlled.

Its discovery means DNA changes, or mutations that come with age or in response to vibrational changes within the DNA, may be doing more than what scientists previously thought.

“For over 40 years we have assumed that DNA changes affecting the genetic code solely impact how proteins are made,” said lead author John Stamatoyannopoulos, University of Washington associate professor of genome sciences and of medicine.

“Now we know that this basic assumption about reading the human genome missed half of the picture,” he said.

“Many DNA changes that appear to alter protein sequences may actually cause disease by disrupting gene control programs or even both mechanisms simultaneously.”

These two meanings seem to have evolved in concert with each other. The gene control instructions appear to help stabilize certain beneficial features of proteins and how they are made.

These two meanings seem to have evolved in concert with each other. The gene control instructions appear to help stabilize certain beneficial features of proteins and how they are made.

The discovery was made as part of the international collaboration of research groups known as the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project, or ENCODE.


The Russian biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr Garjajev and his colleagues explored the vibrational behavior of the DNA. The bottom line was: “Living chromosomes function just like solitonic/holographic computers using the endogenous DNA laser radiation.” This means that they managed for example to modulate certain frequency patterns onto a laser ray and with it influenced the DNA frequency and thus the genetic information itself. Since the basic structure of DNA-alkaline pairs and of language (as explained earlier) are of the same structure, no DNA decoding is necessary.

This finally and scientifically explains why affirmations, autogenous training, hypnosis and the like can have such strong effects on humans and their bodies. It is entirely normal and natural for our DNA to react to frequency. While western researchers cut single genes from the DNA strands and insert them elsewhere, the Russians enthusiastically worked on devices that can influence the cellular metabolism through suitable modulated radio and light frequencies and thus repair genetic defects.

Garjajev’s research group succeeded in proving that with this method chromosomes damaged by x-rays for example can be repaired. Garjajev’s research group They even captured information patterns of a particular DNA and transmitted it onto another, thus reprogramming cells to another genome. So they successfully transformed, for example, frog embryos to salamander embryos simply by transmitting the DNA information patterns! This way the entire information was transmitted without any of the side effects or disharmonies encountered when cutting out and re-introducing single genes from the DNA. This represents an unbelievable, world-transforming revolution and sensation! All this by simply applying vibration instead of the archaic cutting-out procedure! This experiment points to the immense power of wave genetics, which obviously has a greater influence on the formation of organisms than the biochemical processes of alkaline sequences.


Author: Michael Forrester is a spiritual counselor and is a practicing motivational speaker for corporations in Japan, Canada and the United States.

Credits: PreventDisease

Physicists Find Evidence That The Universe Is A Giant Brain

The idea of the universe as a ‘giant brain’ has been proposed by scientists – and science fiction writers – for decades.

But now physicists say there may be some evidence that it’s actually true. In a sense.

According to a study published in Nature’s Scientific Reports, the universe may be growing in the same way as a giant brain – with the electrical firing between brain cells ‘mirrored’ by the shape of expanding galaxies.

The results of a computer simulation suggest that “natural growth dynamics” – the way that systems evolve – are the same for different kinds of networks – whether its the internet, the human brain or the universe as a whole.

A co-author of the study, Dmitri Krioukov from the University of California San Diego, said that while such systems appear very different, they have evolved in very similar ways.

“The result, they argue, is that the universe really does grow like a brain. The study raises profound questions about how the universe works.” Krioukov said.

“For a physicist it’s an immediate signal that there is some missing understanding of how nature works,” he told

The team’s simulation modeled the very early life of the universe, shortly after the big bang, by looking at how quantum units of space-time smaller than subatomic particles ‘networked’ with each other as the universe grew.

They found that the simulation mirrored that of other networks. Some links between similar nodes resulted in limited growth, while others acted as junctions for many different connections.

For instance, some connections are limited and similar – like a person who likes sports visiting many other sports websites – and some are major and connect to many other parts of the network, like Google and Yahoo.

No, it doesn’t quite mean that the universe is ‘thinking’ – but as has been previously pointed out online, it might just mean there’s more similarity between the very small and the very large than first appearances suggest.

We talk about consciousness being the underlying fabric of the universe from which all things emerge (M-theory, string theory, Unified Field Theory, etc). Consciousness has been known to be the ground of being. So not only is the universe conscious like a brain, it is growing like a brain as well. But here’s a question…a brain to what? Is it possible we exist as a thought within the mind of some Super Intelligence? Are we just brain cells operating within a Cosmic Mind? Maybe, maybe not, but it’s fascinating to think about.



SourceHuffington Post

Observations of the Solar System’s biggest asteroid suggest it is spewing plumes of water vapour into space

By Jonathan AmosScience correspondent, BBC News

Ceres impression
An artist’s impression of water out-gassing from two sources on Ceres
Observations of the Solar System’s biggest asteroid suggest it is spewing plumes of water vapour into space.

Ceres has long been thought to contain substantial quantities of ice within its body, but this is the first time such releases have been detected.

The discovery was made by Europe’s infrared Herschel space telescope, and is reported in the journal Nature.

Scientists believe the vapour is coming from dark coloured regions on Ceres’ surface, but are not sure of the cause.

One idea is that surface, or near-surface, ice is being warmed by the Sun, turning it directly to a gas that then escapes to space.

“Another possibility,” says the European Space Agency’s Michael Kuppers, “is that there is still some energy in the interior of Ceres, and this energy would make the water vent out in a similar way as for geysers on Earth, only that with the low pressure at the surface of the asteroid, what comes out would be a vapour and not a liquid.”

The quantity being out-gassed is not great – just 6kg per second – but the signature is unmistakable to Herschel, which was perfectly tuned to detect water molecules in space.

The telescope’s observations were made before its decommissioning last year.

Ceres pictured by HubbleCurrently, our best image of Ceres comes from the Hubble Space Telescope

Scientists will get a better idea of what is going on in 2015, when Ceres is visited by theAmerican space agency’s Dawn probe.

The satellite will go into orbit around the 950km-wide body, mapping its surface and determining its composition and structure.

“It will be able to observe those dark regions at high resolution, and will probably solve the question of what process is creating the water vapour,” explained Dr Kuppers.

Ceres is often now referred to as a “dwarf planet” – the same designation used to describe Pluto following its demotion from full planet status in 2006.

The asteroid’s sheer size means gravity has pulled it into a near-spherical form.

It is regarded as quite a primitive body in that it has clearly not undergone the same heating and processing of its materials that the many other objects in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter have experienced.

Scientists suspect water-ice is buried under Ceres’ crust because its density is less than that of the Earth’s. And this reputation as a “wet body” is supported by the presence of a lot of minerals at its surface that have water bound into their structure.

One theory to explain why Ceres has so much more water-ice than other members of the surrounding asteroid population is that it formed further away from the Sun, and only later migrated to its present location.

This could have happened if perturbed by Jupiter, whose gravity plays a key role in corralling the asteroids in the belt they occupy today.

“We now have a more sophisticated model for the evolution of the Solar System called the Nice model, which successfully explains many of the features of the Solar System, with the planets having migrated outwards and then maybe also inwards,” said Dr Kuppers. and follow me on Twitter:@BBCAmos

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Fascinating New Study Shows How Emotions Are Mapped On The Human Body

Emotions coordinate our behavior and physiological states during survival-salient events and pleasurable interactions. Even though we are often consciously aware of our current emotional state, such as anger or happiness, the mechanisms giving rise to these subjective sensations have remained unresolved. Brilliant research by Finnish scientists has mapped the areas of our body that are experiencing an increase or decrease in sensory activity when we experience a particular emotion.



Depending on whether we are happy, sad or angry, we have physiological sensations that are not located in different areas of the body. We overlook this reality from one day to the next (the famous “lump in the breast” generated by anxiety, the feeling of warmth that pervades our face and our cheeks particularly when we feel the shame…), and do not consciously realize how much the location of these body areas activated by our emotions and how they vary considerably depending on the nature of the emotion.

Researchers around the world are slowly integrating research on how ourenergetic and emotional states cause health and/or disease. How we connect emotionally to our overall wellness and wellbeing may indeed be more relevant than any supplement, food, exercise, medical intervention or health treatment.

Finnish scientists have for the first time mapped areas of the body activated according to each emotion (happiness, sadness, anger, etc).This map was compiled following a study of 700 Finnish, Swedish and Taiwanese volunteers.

They used a topographical self-report tool to reveal that different emotional states are associated with topographically distinct and culturally universal bodily sensations; these sensations could underlie conscious emotional experiences. Monitoring the topography of emotion-triggered bodily sensations brings forth a unique tool for emotion research and could even provide a biomarker for emotional disorders.

Participants were first asked to watch video sequences associated with different emotions and identify parts of their body where they felt an increase or decrease of bodily sensations.

Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. The resulting map shows that each type of emotion activates a network of specific areas of the body, distinct from those activated by other types of emotions.

Every type of emotion carries a specific unique energy and a different vibrational frequency. All organs, tissues, membranes, glands, cells, vibrate in precise frequencies in the human body and they are all influenced by our emotions.

Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions.

The body map shows emotions such as anger are mainly active in the chest, the lower part of the face and arms, with particular intensity on the hands. On disgust, it activates the body areas which are mainly concentrated around the mouth and throat. As for love, three areas are concerned, the face, chest and lower abdomen. Finally, happiness is probably the most significant emotion that solicits our enitre body to respond, as the study shows that it generates bodily sensations in all areas, especially on the face and chest.

The body map identifies areas in which the people experienced increased sensory activity when emotion is felt, but also lists the areas that are home to a decrease in sensory activity. Thus, we learn that the emotions associated with depression have the effect of generating a feeling of decline in sensory activity in the arms and legs.

The results obtained by the research show a remarkable consistency in results, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying bodily sensations that we perceive when we experience a particular emotion are likely dictated by energetic patterns and biology rather than culture.

The researchers proposed that emotions represented in the somatosensory system are culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

This work was published December 31, 2013 in the journal Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences under the title “Bodily maps of emotions” .


Scientists Uncover The Very First ‘Official’ Proof Of Extraterrestrial Life

sri lankaEarlier this year, a group of scientists claimed with certainty that tiny fossils uncovered inside a meteorite found in Sri Lanka in late December 2012, are proof of extraterrestrial life. A paper was published in the Journal of Cosmology (1)(3) by Chandra Wickramasinghe. Wickramasinghe is the director of the Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology at the University of Buckingham in the U.K. The study was conducted alongside researchers at the School of Mathematics at Cardiff University and from the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

While reading this article, please keep in mind that there is already a large amount of evidence that supports the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life. Please browse through our exopolitics sections under the alternative news tab for more information on that.

They found “a microstructure and morphology characteristic of a wide class of terrestrial diatoms.” The group concluded that “the presence of structures of this kind in any extraterrestrial setting could be constructed as unequivocal proof of biology.” Cardiff University was asked to proof-check and analyze the findings, which it did, concluding that the samples were “unequivocally meteorites” and that the analysis of the material structure showed that algae-like fossils were native to it.

This is the first-ever evidence of extraterrestrial life found in a celestial body. The researchers used sophisticated methods like X-ray diffraction, triple oxygen isotope analysis and scanning electron microscopy.

In 1962, Hoyle and I pioneered the theory of carbon grains in space to replace the old ice grain theory. This was vehemently resisted by the astronomical community at the outset, but with the dawn of infrared spectroscopy, the ice grain theory gave way to the carbon dust theory. Over a few years, after a great deal of model-fitting, we came to the conclusion that material similar to biomaterial fitted all the available data in astronomy. We considered the possibility that microbiology had a universal character, and no observations in astronomy or new information from biology has provided contrary evidence.If only ideas that are considered orthodox are given support through award of grans or publication opportunities, it is certain that the progress of science will be stifled as it was throughout the middle ages – Wickramsinghe

English astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle along with Wickramasinghe co-developed a theory known as “panspermia,” which suggests that life exists throughout the universe and is distributed by meteoroids and asteroids. It’s quite a synchronicity that this meteorite found in Sri Lanka happened to fall in their lap, potentially proving their theory correct.

We conclude that the identification of fossilized diatoms in the Polonnaruwa meteorite is firmly established and unimpeachable. Since this meteorite is considered to be an extinct commentary fragment, the idea of microbial life carried within comets and the theory of cometary panspermia is thus vindicated. This was also the guess of the Sri Lankan geologists who first looked at the rock. I personally have no doubt whatsoever that this was a stone that fell from the skies – Wickramsinghe

This isn’t the first time that extraterrestrial life has been confirmed, according to Wickramasinghe. In an earlier paper (2) that he co-authored in 2012 titled “Non-terrestrial origin of life: a transformative research paradigm shift”  where the abstract reads:

Theories and hypotheses in science are continually subject to verification, critical re-evaluation, revision and indeed evolution, in response to new observations and discoveries. Theories of the origin of life have been more constrained than other scientific theories and hypotheses in this regard, through the force of social and cultural pressures. There has been a tendency to adhere too rigidly to a class of theory that demands a purely terrestrial origin of life. For nearly five decades evidence in favour of a non-terrestrial origin of life and panspermia has accumulated which has not been properly assessed. A point has now been reached that demands the serious attention of biologists to a possibly transformative paradigm shift of the question of the origin of life, with profound implications across many disciplines – Wickramsinghe

Just to reiterate, these scientists are claiming to have found fossilized biological structures in a Sri Lankan meteorite of extraterrestrial origin. The researchers say that tiny algae-like fossils found in meteorite fragments could not have originated on our planet. There have been critics that say the stone was of terrestrial origin, and the study addressees these concerns and debunks them with scientific evidence (1)(3).

Extraterrestrial Life and Intelligent Extraterrestrial Life

This is a very significant finding, it’s the first time that a direct scientific find of extraterrestrial life can be confirmed. You would think that it would make major headlines, but unfortunately it didn’t. As illustrated in an earlier paper (2), a point has now been reached that demands the serious attention of biologists to a possibly transformative paradigm shift on the question about the origin of life. It’s well known that theories about the origin of life have been very constrained, more so than other scientific theories and hypotheses due to the force of social and cultural pressures(2). The question of extraterrestrial life, and even beyond that, intelligent extraterrestrial life is currently playing a large role in a massive and transformative paradigm shift that is currently occurring on our planet.

On one hand, we have mainstream science looking for signs for extraterrestrial life, on the other hand we have a very large amount of evidence to suggest that intelligent extraterrestrial life has already been discovered -and that this shocking paradigm shifting information has been concealed from the public for over 70 years.  I use this clip a lot, but it’s a great statement made by a researcher who examined the subject from the perspective that not only has extraterrestrial life been discovered, but intelligent extraterrestrial life exists and is engaging with this planet and the human race. What do you think?



A lot of this ‘evidence’ has been provided and written about by many. Collective Evolution has multiple articles that provide official documentation as well as witness testimony from multiple sources. For more on the intelligent extraterrestrial life debate, please visit our “Exopolitics” section under our “Alternative News” tab.





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Atomic Bond Types Clearly Discernible Thanks to Single-Molecule Images


A team from IBM in Zürich has released images they captured of single-molecules that are so detailed that the type of atomic bonds between their atoms can be discerned.

The scientists published their findings in the journal Science. The same IBM team took the first ever single-molecule images in 2009 and most recently published the images of the pentacene, the molecule shaped like the Olympic rings.


These new images will allow scientists to study the imperfections of graphene or plotting where electrons go during chemical reactions.

The team included French and Spanish collaborators, and they used a variant of a technique called atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM uses a tiny metal tip that passes over a surface, where even tinier deflections are measured as the tip is scanned as it moves to and fro over a sample.

The pentacene molecule was scanned by using a carbon monoxide molecule, which acted like a recording needle, allowing for unprecedented accuracy of the surfaces of atoms.

The experiments themselves must be isolated from any kind of vibrations. Room temperatures themselves induce movements of the AFM’s constituent molecules, which would blur the image, so the actual apparatus must be kept at -268 °C.

The tiny distortions in the regular hexagonal pattern of carbon bonds are what interested the researchers. Fullerenes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which have linked rings of carbon atoms at their cores, were the focus of this study.

The images showcased how long the atomic bonds are. The bright and dark spots correspond to higher and lower densities of electrons. There are different physical properties of different bonds.