Where Did HIV Come From?

photo credit: Wellcome Images, via Flickr. B0002395 Cut-away model of HIV. CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Everyone has heard of HIV. According to estimates by the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programe on HIV/AIDS, 34 million people around the world had HIV in 2010. Globally, around 6000 people die every day from HIV related illnesses. Yet the virus itself was only identified a few decades ago. Where did it all begin? How did HIV first get into the population, triggering one of the most devastating pandemics in history? This article is going to explore some of the main theories proposed so far to give you an insight into this complex but fascinating topic.

What Is HIV?

HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the causative agent of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). There are actually two types of HIV; HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the dominant virus worldwide, whereas HIV-2 is largely confined to West African countries and those with links to this area such as France and Portugal.

HIV-2 is separated into eight groups, A-H, with group A being the most prevalent worldwide. Only groups A and B have been successfully transmitted between humans- the rest have been isolated cases with “dead end” viruses. HIV-1 is divided into 4 groups; M, N, O and P. M, which has been responsible for the majority of infections worldwide, is further divided into 9 different subtypes which dominate in different countries.

The HIV Conspiracy Theory

There are a few different ideas that have been put forward to explain how HIV came about. The two thrown around most, by far, are: “The government did it,” or “It was definitely people having sex with monkeys!”

There are lots of conspiracy theories surrounding HIV; some people do not believe it causes AIDS at all, and others believe that HIV is a man-made virus.

According to a 2005 survey of African Americans living in the US, almost 50% of the respondents believed that HIV was manufactured in a lab. Furthermore, over 25% believed that this was done by the government. A significant number also believed that it was created in order to control the population of black people/homosexuals.

There is absolutely no evidence in support these theories and a lot of evidence to suggest they’re baloney. Some of the earliest documented cases of HIV were in the late 1950s; it’s absurd to think that scientists would have had the knowledge or technology to create viruses back then. We only identified the structure of DNA in 1953. We’ve only just managed to create the first synthetic bacterial genome, let alone create a virus from scratch.

Creating a virus would require knowledge of genetic manipulation. We simply did not have the expertise to be able to achieve something like this at that time.

Tracing The Origin Of HIV

There exists an overwhelming amount of evidence to suggest that HIV arose from cross-species transmission of closely related viruses that are found naturally in various primate hosts in Africa.

By looking at the genomes of these viruses, which are collectively known as simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), and comparing them with those of the different types of HIV we can see that the SIVs are the closest relatives of HIV. Furthermore, geographical correlations exist between SIVs in their different hosts and HIV.

HIV-1 and HIV-2 have different origins as they arose from independent transmission events. Closely related SIVs have been found in monkeys called sooty mangabeys in Western Africa, which is the only region that HIV-2 is endemic in. Therefore, scientists conclude that HIV-2 has its origins in SIV infected sooty mangabeys.

HIV-1 is a little more complicated, but each different group (M, N, O and P) arose from a single transmission event. M and N have been traced back to SIV infected chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), but the closest relatives of O and P have been found in gorillas.

Image credit: Chi King, via Wikimedia Commons. 

When Did HIV Enter The Population?

By looking at the genome sequences of different viruses over time, researchers can calibrate a “molecular clock” based on the rate of sequence change, or mutations. Scientists can then use this to infer the rate of evolution and thus determine approximately when the most recent common ancestor existed.

Using this technique, researchers estimated that HIV-1 group M originated in 1908 and group O in 1920HIV-2 groups A and B originated a bit later; approximately in 1940 and 1945, respectively.

We Know When, What About How?

There are a few different theories about how these viruses got into the population. The idea that humans copulated with primates and subsequently became infected tickles the fancy of some, but this idea is not taken seriously by experts in the field! (A gorilla? Really?!)

The simplest explanation is that humans came into contact with the blood or other secretions of infected primates which is perfectly plausible since, for example, sooty mangabeys were both kept as pets and slaughtered for bushmeat in West Africa, the same region that HIV-2 is most prevalent. It would be easy for infected bodily fluids to come into contact with broken skin during the butchering process.

Given the fact that medical resources are costly, it is plausible that during immunization programs in Africa, healthcare professionals would have shared needles, providing ample opportunity to spread infection through the population. This, coupled with an increase in international travel alongside sexual promiscuity and intravenous drug use, seems a logical explanation for the emergence of HIV.

Another theory is that humans became infected from contaminated oral polio vaccines. The vaccine in question was called CHAT which required the use of living tissue for production. The idea was that the kidney cells used in the production line came from SIV infected chimps and thus a large number of people were exposed. However, this theory falls down because as we have seen, not all of the HIVs came from chimps. It’s also extremely unlikely that oral vaccines would result in transmission since, unless compromised, the mouth is a pretty good barrier to infection. Furthermore, researchers found stocks of the vaccine used and when it was tested, no traces of SIV were found. This theory has therefore largely been refuted.

Oral polio vaccine administration. Image credit: Julien Harneis, via Wikimedia Commons.

In sum, while it is difficult to definitively prove where HIV came from, we can make assertions based on the best available evidence. This evidence points to a simian (monkey or ape) origin, not the government. Everyone loves to hear about a good conspiracy theory, but it really does not add up here.

Justine Alford received her PhD in life sciences from Warwick University in 2014. Her work focused on HIV and immunology. She has no conflicts of interest to declare.

Header image “B0002395 Cut-away model of HIV,” by Wellcome Images, via Flickr, used in accordance with CC BY-NC-ND 2.0



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Little Known Chinese Herb & Iron Kill 98% Of Cancer Cells In 16 Hours

blog-image-wormwoodby Christina Sarich

According to studies that were published in an issue of Life Sciences, artemesinin – a derivative of the wormwood plant used in Chinese Medicine – can kill 98% of breast cancer cells in less than 16 hours. The herb used alone caused a 28% reduction in breast cancer cells, but when paired with iron, sweet wormwood was able to eradicate cancer almost entirely. What’s more, normal cells were not negatively affected in the experiment by this treatment.

 

Artemisinin has been used in the past as a powerful anti-malarial herb, but it now has been proven to be a cancer-fighter, too. When subjects in the published study were given an iron supplement, which often accumulates in the breast tissue but especially so in cancerous cells, the artemisinin was able to selectively target ‘bad’ cells and leave ‘good’ cells alone.

“Taken together, our results demonstrate that the artemisinin disruption of E2F1 transcription factor expression mediates the cell cycle arrest of human breast cancer cells and represents a critical transcriptional pathway by which artemisinin controls human reproductive cancer cell growth.”

Read: Watercress Found to Block Breast Cancer Cell Growth

Iron accumulates in cancerous cells due to special receptors that help them in cell division, called transferrin receptors. Normal cells likely have these receptors as well, but cancerous cells have them in greater abundance, and thus can be targeted by the iron-artemisinin combination, like a 1-2 punch.

There have been many experiments now that prove this sweet wormwood derivative can effectively eradicate disease in the presence of iron. The extract has been used for thousand of years in China to treat malaria. The malaria parasite cannot live in the presence of artemisinin because they are iron-rich, but the treatment works just as well for cancerous cells, too. Bioengineers Henry Lai and Narendra Singh of the University of Washington, Seattle were the scientists who initially made this discovery. This is yet another example of a natural herb causing cancerous cell apoptosis.

While the sweet wormwood extract has been somewhat difficult to obtain for a fair price for countless years, it is now on its way to being mass-produced by biotech. Will the result be positive and promising?

Read: Study Shows How Radiation Treatment Makes Breast Cancer Worse

“It’s the volatility that really makes the supply chain for this life-saving drug just a complete train wreck,” says Jack Newman, chief scientific officer of the California-based biotech firm Amyris. ”When we first started talking about this,” Newman says, “we gave it 1,000 to 1 odds of ever working. “

French drugmaker Sanofi is expected to make 50 to 60 tons of artemisinin each year, striving to supply enough demand for the global market.

Sources:

Natural Society

Nine Foods you Should Never Eat Again

9foods

With so much misinformation out there about food and how it affects human health, making healthy food choices for you and your family can be difficult and confusing. There are a number of specific foods; however, that you will want to avoid in almost every circumstance because they provide virtually no health benefits while posing plenty of health risks. Here are nine foods you should never eat again if you care about preserving your long-term health:

1) White bread, refined flours. By definition, white bread and refined flours in general are toxic for your body because they have been stripped of virtually all vitamins, minerals, fiber, and other important nutrients. Because of this, the body does not know how to properly digest and assimilate these so-called foods, which can lead to health problems. Refined white flour has also been bleached with chlorine and brominated with bromide, two poisonous chemicals that have been linked to causing thyroid and organ damage. (http://drlwilson.com/ARTICLES/BREAD.htm)

2) Conventional frozen meals. Most conventionally-prepared frozen meals are loaded with preservatives, processed salt, hydrogenated oils and other artificial ingredients, not to mention the fact that most frozen meals have been heavily pre-cooked, rendering their nutrient content minimal at best (especially after getting microwaved again at home). With the exception of a few truly healthy frozen meal brands such as Amy’s and Organic Bistro, most frozen meals are little more than disease in a box, so avoid them in favor of fresh foods. (http://www.4us2be.com)

3) White rice. Like white bread, white rice has been stripped of most of its nutrients, and separated from the bran and germ, two natural components that make up rice in its brown form. Even so-called “fortified” white rice is nutritionally deficient, as the body still processes this refined food much differently than brown rice, which is absorbed more slowly and does not cause the same spike in blood sugar that white rice does. (http://globalnaturopath.com)

4) Microwaveable popcorn. This processed food is a favorite among moviegoers and regular snackers alike, but it is one of the unhealthiest foods you can eat. Practically every component of microwaveable popcorn, from the genetically-modified (GM) corn kernels to the processed salt and preservative chemicals used to enhance its flavor, is unhealthy and disease-promoting. On top of this, microwaveable popcorn contains a chemical known as diacetyl that can actually destroy your lungs. If you love popcorn, stick with organic kernels that you can pop yourself in a kettle and douse with healthy ingredients like coconut oil, grass-fed butter, and Himalayan pink salt. (http://www.naturalnews.com)

5) Cured meat products with nitrates, nitrites. Deli meats, summer sausage, hot dogs, bacon, and many other meats sold at the grocery store are often loaded with sodium nitrite and other chemical preservatives that have been linked to causing heart disease and cancer. If you eat meat, stick with uncured, nitrite and nitrate-free varieties, and preferably those that come from organic, grass-fed animals. (http://www.naturalnews.com/028824_processed_meat_heart_disease.html)

6) Most conventional protein, energy bars. By the way they are often marketed, it might seem as though protein and energy bars are a strong addition to a healthy diet. But more often than not, these meal replacements contain processed soy protein, refined sugar, hydrogenated fat, and other harmful additives that contribute to chronic illness. Not all protein and energy bars are bad, of course — Thunderbird Energetica, Organic Food Bar, Boku Superfood, Vega Sport, PROBAR, and Zing all make healthy protein and energy bars. Just be sure to read the ingredient labels and know what you are buying.

7) Margarine. Hidden in all sorts of processed foods, margarine, a hydrogenated trans-fat oil, is something you will want to avoid at all costs for your health. Contrary to popular belief, butter and saturated fats in general are not unhealthy, especially when they are derived from pastured animals that feed on grass rather than corn and soy. And if animal-based fats are not for you, stick with extra-virgin coconut oil or olive oil rather than margarine. (http://www.naturalnews.com/027865_saturated_fat_health.html)

8) Soy milk and soy-based meat substitutes. One of the biggest health frauds of modern times, the soy craze is a fad that you will want to skip. Besides the fact that nearly all non-organic soy ingredients are of GM origin, most soy additives are processed using a toxic chemical known as hexane, which is linked to causing birth defects, reproductive problems, and cancer. Soy that has not been fermented is also highly estrogenic, which can throw your natural hormone balance out of whack. (http://www.naturalnews.com/026303_soy_protein_hexane.html)

9) “Diet” anything. Many so-called “diet” products on the market today contains artificial sweeteners like aspartame (Equal) and sucralose (Splenda), both of which are linked to causing neurological damage, gastrointestinal problems, and endocrine disruption. Many diet products also contain added chemical flavoring agents to take the place of fat and other natural components that have been removed to artificially reduce calorie content. Instead, stick with whole foods that are as close to nature as possible, including high-fat foods grown the way nature intended, and your body will respond surprisingly well. (http://www.naturalnews.com)

Sources for this article include:
http://www.rd.com/slideshows/15-foods-you-should-never-buy-again/

Article Originally Posted on NaturalNews.com

5 Facts On Cancer That Conventional Medicine Is Now Aggressively Claiming Are Myths

According to the conventional wisdom of mainstream medicine, the world’s leading health practitioners in alternative, complementary and integrative medicine have it all wrong and are misinforming millions in practice and on the internet with a barrage of myths and misconceptions they claim are causing more harm to cancer patients. Could this initiative to sway opinion by leading cancer authorities possibly, just possibly be related to the revolution that is happening around the world–highlighting the dangers and ineffectiveness of toxic chemotherapy and radiation, bringing cancer cures such as cannabis to the forefront, or the emerging mass markets now creating awareness on the reality of our food and the consequences of the cancer industry itself?

FACT #1
The Rise In All Types of Cancers Are Due To Our Modern Society Diets, Lifestyles and Environment

Why The Cancer Industry Claims This Is a Myth
The claim is that our genes are responsible, combined with the fact that people are living long enough now to develop cancer. It’s because of our success in tackling infectious diseases and malnutrition that we now get cancer. It’s perfectly normal for DNA damage in our cells to build up as we age, and such damage can lead to cancer developing. Cancer has existed as long as humans have.

The Reality 
The only reason that people around the world today believe that our ancestors did not live past 100 years is because the official data has been sparse. There are very few records that show (officially) the age of our ancestors before then 18th century, but there is a reasonable amount of evidence suggesting there were many people living hundreds of yearsin prehistory and beyond.

In all the skeletons collected in the history of paleoanthropology, scientists have only been able to identify a mere 200 possible cancer sightings dating to prehistoric times, and these identifications are far from certain. Despite the numbers, when you look at the remains, it seems to indicate that malignancies were a “striking rarity” in ancient times, but that evidence is hardly conclusive. We just don’t know for sure, so to use any type of argument that cancer existed or did not exist to any extent in prehistory involves making a great deal of assumptions.

So let’s just focus on what has transpired in the last century alone.
According to the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Vital Statistics of the United States, from the early 1900s alone up to an including 2011, there was a greater than 3 fold increase in cancer death rates.

According to a 2013 featured report compiled by the American Cancer Society and other government and cancer advocacy groups, progress has been made in the “war on cancer.” But what kind of progress? Declining mortality rates are not due to decreases in incidence. More people are getting cancer, but they’re staying alive longer. What the cancer industry does not point out is that the trends clearly show that we haven’t eliminated cancer to any extent, but we have managed to be able to diagnose it and treat it and thus profit from the actual disease itself.

People globally are living longer but chronic debilitating conditions are becoming more prevalent.

Diagnosis and treatment are the money makers in this industry. Actual prevention is not. So when it comes to prevention, conventional medicine has stuck its head in the sand.

Overall, cancer deaths began dropping in the 1990’s, with death rates declining by 1.8 percent for men and 1.4 percent for women between the years 2000-2009, according to the featured report. Children’s death rates from cancer are also declining at a pace of 1.8 percent per year, although incidence is still rising by about 0.5 percent annually.

Other cancers are also still on the rise though, including liver and pancreatic cancer and melanoma (among men).

2008 study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science demonstrated how nutrition alone can have a tremendous impact not only on prevention, but even on the treatment of cancer once you’ve been diagnosed.

This type of information is never emphasized by the medical community because they do not believe cancer can be treated without either cutting, poisoning or burning cancerous tumors.

FACT #2
Super-foods and Herbs Can Prevent Cancer 

Why The Cancer Industry Claims This Is a Myth
The claim is that specific fruits and vegetables you choose don’t really matter. There’s no such thing as a ‘super-food’ or medicinally powerful herb and any assertion has no scientific basis.

The Reality 
This one is just embarrassing for them. While there is not one super-food or herb that may cure all cancers, to suggest that super-foods don’t exist or that herbs are not medicinally powerful is reaching deep in the pits of ignorance. In fact, there is so much evidence that super-foods exist and have anti-cancer properties, that any claims suggesting the opposite are a good measure of where the credibility lies among many of these industry quacks that make such preposterous statements.

As of the date of this article, The American Cancer Society (ACS) appears to have removed references to “super foods” or “super-foods” off of their website. Yet, several authors have written extensively about previous recommendations of the ACS, specifically regarding the potential of super-foods to prevent cancer. Northridge Hospital Medical Centerlists several super foods using the ACS as a source. Calorielab.com hasposted a super food infographic also using ACS as a source. But information on super-foods on the ACS website does not appear to exist.

Cancer Research UK also discredits and discourages the use of super-foods On this page it states “you shouldn’t rely on so-called super-foods to reduce the risk of cancer,” and that super-foods “are unlikely to give you added health benefits over and above what you would get from eating a varied and healthy diet.”

One irritating problem that confuses the public is that most dietitians have no foundation of practical knowledge in nutrition. They propagate mainstream opinion on the validity of the food pyramid–that bread, cereal and grains should be the mainstay of our diets and that fruits and vegetables are all equal. Most dietitians I know don’t use the term super-food because they’re not taught what super-foods are in school. The only thing they are taught is that “super-foods” are non-medical terms popularized in the media to promote unsupported health-promoting properties in foods.

A super-food can be summed up as any multi-tasking food with higher than average concentrations of disease-fighting nutrients, which are usually in abundance among the antioxidant and phytonutrient rich profiles. Some suggest they are also low in calories but that does not always apply to all super-foods

Some super-foods like blueberries just stand out above the rest. Out of Over 400 Compounds Analyzed, Red Grapes and Blueberries Are Tops In Boosting Immunity.

Even WebMD.com, a very pro mainstream medical website lists 10 Everday Super Foods. Here they list foods such as broccoli, berries, quinoa, beans, nuts, eggs and others which few can den are very nutrient dense foods with anti-cancer properties.

It’s not necessary, however, to spend any large sums of money for heavily promoted super-foods such as noni, acai, mangosteen and other juices in an attempt to prevent cancer. The top six foods with the highest antioxidant values on the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) scale are cheaper and more readily available than the more expensive alternatives and they all are proven to prevent cancer. They include cloves, sumac, cinnamon, sorghum, oregano and turmeric.

For example extracts of black, red, and white sorghums had strong antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells.

Studies on animals with lung and skin cancers show that eugenol in cloves can stop cancer cells from multiplying. Clove oil extract was foundin one study to have maximal cytotoxic activity on cancer cells.

In fact there are 17 herbs and spices which in their own right are considered super-foods, and have been scientifically proven to prevent and treat cancer. 

Cannabis is one of the most powerful healing plants in the world and itmakes cancer essentially disappear. Cancer societies would certainly like cannabis to disappear because there is so much evidence that it prevents cancer. There are dozens of studies which prove cannabis cures cancer. A quick search on Pubmed for “cannabinoid” will yield almost 18,000 results.

The reason cancer societies are now turning their heads to the power of super-foods and herbs is because they work. So they must try and sway opinion in an attempt to convince millions who are now converting back to nature to prevent and cure disease.


FACT #3

Acidic Diets Cause Cancer

Why The Cancer Industry Claims This Is a Myth
This is biological nonsense according to the cancer industry. The pH of the blood is tightly regulated by the kidneys within a very narrow and perfectly healthy range. It can’t be changed for any meaningful amount of time by what you eat. There’s no evidence to prove that diet can manipulate whole body pH, or that it has an impact on cancer.

The Reality 
Part of the problem with this notion is that there has been a lot of misinformation spread around by so-called health gurus in trade shows attempting to convince people that you can make dramatic shifts in the pH of your body through foods and alkaline water. The truth is, you can’t make huge shifts in blood alkalinity or acidity, but you can small shifts that are significant enough to reverse cancer.

The pH of your blood is tightly regulated by a complex system of buffers that are continuously at work to maintain a range of 7.3 to 7.41, which is slightly more alkaline than pure water.

If the pH of your blood falls below 7.3, the result is a condition called acidosis, a state that leads to central nervous system depression. Severe acidosis – where blood pH falls below 7.00 – can lead to a coma and even death. If the pH of your blood rises above 7.45, the result is alkalosis.

The bottom line is that if you’re breathing and going about your daily activities, your body is doing an adequate job of keeping your blood pH somewhere between 7.3 to 7.41, and the foods that you are eating are not causing any wild deviations of your blood pH. However keeping your body closer to an alkaline state by even a few points up .05 can make a significant difference in how well cancer grows or suppresses. Cancer cells can’t live in an alkaline environment.

The reason acidosis is more common in our society is mostly due to the typical American diet, which is far too high in acid-producing animal products like meat, and dairy, and far too low in alkaline-producing foods like fresh vegetables. Additionally, we eat acid-producing processed foods like white flour and sugar and drink acid-producing beverages like coffee and soft drinks. We use too many drugs, which are acid-forming; and we use artificial chemical sweeteners like NutraSweet, Equal, or aspartame, which are extremely acid-forming. One of the best things we can do to correct an overly-acid body is to clean up the diet and lifestyle.

Dr. A. Keith Brewer explained that in alkaline environments and high pH condition, the acid toxins of the cancer cell are neutralized and rendered nontoxic. Acidic toxins, and not the tumor lump per se, is what brings about the death of the host. In the high pH condition, the life of the cancer cell is short. The dead cancer cells are readily absorbed by the system and eliminated. “I am convinced that it is food that causes cancer, but it is the food we don’t eat and not the food we do eat.”

This condition forces the body to borrow minerals–including calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium–from vital organs and bones to buffer (neutralize) the acid and safely remove it from the body. Once a person is diagnosed with cancer, the most effective way of reversing the disease is to move towards an alkaline diet and shift blood pH towards the 7.41 range. This is accomplished most effectively with raw fruits and vegetables and daily greens which maximize phytonutrients and enhance the immune system’s potential to reverse cancer. No, the body will not dramatically shift blood pH, but it doesn’t need to for cancer cells to die. Even a small shift will reverse cancer and prevent the body from borrowing minerals from organs and bones to compensate for a nutritionally deficient diet. That’s where alkalizing agents come in.

I have seen stage IV cancer patients with tumors the size of footballs recover using alkalizing agents. It is beyond the scope of this article to explain how alkalizing agents and pH therapy can eliminate cancer, however if you seek the assistance of any Naturopathic Physician well-versed in cancer treatment, the protocols are fairly common although inconsistent.

The bottom line is that the body can achieve the metabolic accomplishment of keeping blood pH towards the alkaline spectrum where cancer will not proliferate. The immune system can then thrive and signal recovery which is facilitated through nutritional mechanisms and alkalizing agents to maximize recovery and make treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation or surgery completely unnecessary.


FACT #4

Sugar Feeds Cancer

Why The Cancer Industry Claims This Is a Myth
They claim there is no evidence that cancer cells use glucose and produce energy in a different way from healthy cells. The “sugar feeds cancer” myth distorts sensible dietary advice which must be based on nutritional and scientific fact.

The Reality 
Understanding cancer cannot result from the view on a single cancer event, but must consider the combined action of all cellular triggers in a given cellular background. There is little doubt in the scientific community that the high rate of carbohydrate ingestion contributes to various metabolic diseases, including the development of aggressive cancer.

The medical establishment may be missing the connection between sugar and its role in tumorgenesis Consider the million-dollar positive emission tomography device, or PET scan, regarded as one of the ultimate cancer-detection tools. PET scans use radioactively labeled glucose to detect sugar-hungry tumor cells. PET scans are used to plot the progress of cancer patients and to assess whether present protocols are effective.

Domestic animals (e.g. cats and dogs) which usually consume western diets with a comparatively high glycemic index, frequently suffer from aggressive cancer, whereas carnivore animals and herbivore animals do have a low rate of metastasizing cancer and rarely die from this disease. Both carnivores and herbivores predominantly live from proteins and fat/oil. Although herbivores ingest large amounts of complex carbohydrates (cellulose and other fibres), these are fermented to fatty acids by bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract and therefore exhibit an extremely low glycemic index. Limited release or even absence of glucose during digestion may explain the low rates of cancer-caused mortality in herbivore and carnivore animals.

four-year study at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection in the Netherlands compared 111 biliary tract cancer patients with 480 controls. Cancer risk associated with the intake of sugars, independent of other energy sources, more than doubled for the cancer patients. Furthermore, an epidemiological study in 21 modern countries that keep track of morbidity and mortality (Europe, North America, Japan and others) revealed that sugar intake is a strong risk factor that contributes to higher breast cancer rates, particularly in older women.

In Europe, the “sugar feeds cancer” concept is so well accepted that oncologists, or cancer doctors, use the Systemic Cancer Multistep Therapy (SCMT) protocol. Conceived by Manfred von Ardenne in Germany in 1965, SCMT entails injecting patients with glucose to increase blood-glucose concentrations. This lowers pH values in cancer tissues via lactic acid formation. In turn, this intensifies the thermal sensitivity of the malignant tumors and also induces rapid growth of the cancer. Patients are then given whole-body hyperthermia (42 C core temperature) to further stress the cancer cells, followed by chemotherapy or radiation. SCMT was tested on 103 patients with metastasized cancer or recurrent primary tumors in a clinical phase-I study at the Von Ardenne Institute of Applied Medical Research in Dresden, Germany. Five-year survival rates in SCMT-treated patients increased by 25 to 50 percent, and the complete rate of tumor regression increased by 30 to 50 percent.20 The protocol induces rapid growth of the cancer, then treats the tumor with toxic therapies for a dramatic improvement in outcome.

For metastatic cancer cells, a shift towards growth is facilitated by an evolutionary novel microenvironment within the body, which is characterized by a permanent availability of high amounts of glucose due to a nutrition with a high glycemic index, the absence of periods of starvation, as well as reduced physical activity. The more the body absorbs simple carbohydrates in the form of artificial sugars

FACT #5
Conventional Cancer Treatment Kills More Than It Cures

Why The Cancer Industry Claims This Is a Myth
The medical community insists that surgery is still the most effective treatment we have for cancer. Radiotherapy helps cure more people than cancer drugs. Yet chemotherapy and other cancer drugs have a very important part to play in cancer treatment — in some cases helping to cure the disease, and in others helping to prolong survival. Chemotherapy does not encourage cancer.

The Reality 
Doctors and pharmaceutical companies make money from it. That’s the only reason chemotherapy is still used. Not because it’s effective, decreases morbidity, mortality or diminishes any specific cancer rates. In fact, it does the opposite. Chemotherapy boosts cancer growth and long-term mortality rates. Most chemotherapy patients either die or are plagued with illness within 10-15 years after treatment. It destroys their immune system, increases neuro-cognitive decline, disrupts endocrine functioning and causes organ and metabolic toxicities. Patients basically live in a permanent state of disease until their death.

The reason a 5-year relative survival rate is the standard used to assess mortality rates is due to most cancer patients going downhill after this period. It’s exceptionally bad for business and the cancer industry knows it. They could never show the public the true 97% statistical failure rate in treating long-term metastatic cancers. If they did publish the long-term statistics for all cancers administered cytotoxic chemotherapy, that is 10+ years and produced the objective data on rigorous evaluations including the cost-effectiveness, impact on the immune system, quality of life, morbidity and mortality, it would be very clear to the world that chemotherapy makes little to no contribution to cancer survival at all. No such study has ever been conducted by independent investigators in the history of chemotherapy. The only studies available come from industry funded institutions and scientists and none of them have ever inclusively quantified the above variables.

Why? Money, greed and profits run the cancer industry–nothing else. The cancer establishment must retreat from the truth to treat cancer because there will never be any profit for them in in eradicating the disease. There is no governing body in the world that protects consumers from being subjected to these toxic therapies or even known carcinogens in our foods our environment, because that too, will prevent the profits from rolling in. It’s a business of mammoth proportions and must be treated as such.

According to official statistics, one person out of two is claimed to recover from cancer through conventional methods. Although dramatic, the information nevertheless contains a certain amount of hope, as implicitly it provides something positive for both scientists and patients. To the scientists it says: continue the research because it is producing results; do not try preventive, alternative theoretical or therapeutic roads, nor get discouraged by the fact that patients keep on dying every day. To the patients, on the other hand, it provides a warning: you have a 50 percent chance of making it, as long as you follow the conventional therapeutic protocols without trying what they claim are the useless alternatives.

So, in the early stages of tumors (the dubious ones) the recovery rates are extremely high, while in the following stages — that is, where they certainly are tumors — the rates are barely above zero. The reason for the discrepancy is the qualification of the data and how a patient is assessed in terms of recovery. Immune reconstitution and tolerance, organ and metabolic toxicities, endocrine challenges, functional outcomes, quality of life, and neurocognitive outcomes are NEVER inclusively assessed in any clinical study discussing the long-term survival and recovery rates of cancer patients. The damage to these systems slowly develops after chemotherapy, however if often does not begin to manifest throughout the body until several months or even years have passed. It takes time, but within a 3-5 year period, most chemotherapy patients begin to have many more symptoms of disease than they every had before their diagnosis, due to and as a direct result of cytotoxic drug intervention.

Adjuvant chemotherapy is often given to patients who might not really need it at all. Oncologists do not consider the whole spectrum of chemotherapy risks versus benefits and thus compromise quality of life for every patient they treat. A study in the Annals of Oncology is one of few which assessed the different potential long-term adverse events associated with adjuvant chemotherapy in cancer, with a particular focus on long-term cardiac toxicity, secondary leukemia, cognitive function, and neurotoxicity. The authors stated that the adverse events are frequently overshadowed by the well-demonstrated clinical efficacy and/or reassuring short-term safety profiles of the different chemotherapy regimens commonly used today.

Another study in the American Society of Clinical Oncologydetermined whether long-term survivors of metastatic testicular cancer have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity more than 10 years after chemotherapy. They observed a significantly increased risk for occurrence of cardiac events accompanied by a persisting unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile likely due to chemotherapeutic agents.

A 12-year meta-analysis published in the Journal of Clinical Oncologyobserved adults who had developed cancer and treated with chemotherapy. The 12-year study looked at adults who had developed cancer as an adult. 97% of the time, chemotherapy did not work in regressing the metastatic cancers.

Sources:
mercola.com
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
preventdisease.com
mwt.net
nlm.nih.gov

Dave Mihalovic is a Naturopathic Doctor who specializes in vaccine research, cancer prevention and a natural approach to treatment.

300+ Mind Expanding Documentaries

mind expanding docs

I watch a lot of documentaries. I think they are incredible tools for learning and increasing our awareness of important issues. The power of an interesting documentary is that it can open our minds to new possibilities and deepen our understanding of the world. On this list of mind expanding documentaries you will find different viewpoints, controversial opinions and even contradictory ideas. Critical thinking is recommended. I’m not a big fan of conspiracy documentaries but I do like films that challenge consensus reality and provoke us to question the everyday ideas, opinions and practices we usually take for granted.

Watching documentaries is one of my favorite methods of self-education. If I find a documentary inspiring, I usually spend more time researching the different ideas and interesting people interviewed in the film.

I hope you find these documentaries as enlightening as I did!

If you notice that a link is broken, please let me know in the comments and I’ll update it.

Thanks to Kyle Pearce & DIY Genius for this awesome list!

[1] Life In The Biosphere

Explore the wonder and interconnectedness of the biosphere through the magic of technology.

1. Home
2. How Many People Can Live on Planet Earth
3. The Magical Forest
4. Ants: Nature’s Secret Power
5. Mt. Everest: How It Was Made
6. Mariana’s Trench: The Deepest Spot On Earth
7. Natural World: The Andes
8. Shining Mountains: The Rockies
9. Grand Canyon: How It Was Made
10. The Intelligence of Plants

[2] Creativity and Design:

Learn about all the amazing things that people create with their imaginations.

1. Everything Is A Remix
2. The Creative Brain: How Insight Works
3. Blow Your Mind
4. Design: The New Business
5. PressPausePlay: Art and Creativity in the Digital Age
6. Infamy: A Graffiti Documentary
7. Influencers: How Trends and Creativity Become Contagious
8. RIP: A Remix Manifesto
9. Design: e² – Sustainable Architecture
10. The Genius Of Design

[3] The Education Industrial Complex:

The modern school where young minds are moulded into standardized citizens by the state.

1. The College Conspiracy
2. Declining by Degrees: Higher Education at Risk
3. The Forbidden Education
4. Default: The Student Loan Documentary
5. College Inc.
6. Education For A Sustainable Future
7. Networked Society: The Future of Learning
8. The Ultimate History Lesson With John Taylor Gatto
9. The Education System in Communist China
10. The War On Kids

[4] The Digital Revolution:

The Internet is now the driving force behind change and innovation in the world.

1. Download: The True Story of the Internet
2. The Age of Big Data
3. Resonance: Beings of Frequency
5. Life In A Day
6. Networked Society: On The Brink
7. Us Now: Social Media and Mass Collaboration
8. WikiRebels: The WikiLeaks Story
9. The Virtual Revolution: The Cost of Free
10. How Hackers Changed the World

[5] A New Civilization:

We are at the dawn of a new golden age of human inventiveness.

1. THRIVE: What On Earth Will It Take?
2. Zeitgeist III: Moving Forward
3. Paradise or Oblivion
4. 2012: Time For Change
5. The Crisis of Civilization
6. The Collective Evolution II
7. The Quickening: Awakening As One
8. 2012 Crossing Over: A New Beginning
9. Collapse
10. The Awakening

[6] Politics:

Explore the politics of power and control and how it affects your life.

1. Owned and Operated
2. UnGrip
3. The Power Principle
4. The True Story of Che Guevara
5. Earth Days
6. Capitalism Is The Crisis
7. WikiLeaks: The Secret Life of a Superpower
8. The Putin System
9. The War On Democracy
10. Rise Like Lions: Occupy Wall Street and the Seeds of Revolution

[7] Biographies of Genius:

The biographies of modern geniuses who pushed humanity forward.

1. Isaac Newton: The Last Magician
2. Nikola Tesla: The Greatest Mind of All Time
3. The Unlimited Energy of Nicola Tesla
4. The Missing Secrets Of Nikola Tesla
5. Richard Feynman: No Ordinary Genius
6. How Albert Einstein’s Brain Worked
7. The Extraordinary Genius of Albert Einstein
8. The Biography of Albert Einstein
9. Da Vinci: Unlocking The Genius
10. Leonardo Da Vinci: The Man Who Wanted to Know Everything

[8] War:

War is history’s oldest racket for stealing from the powerless and redistributing resources to the powerful.

1. Psywar: The Real Battlefield Is Your Mind
2. The History of World War II
3. The Secret History of 9/11
4. Robot Armies in the Future
5. The Never Ending War in Afghanistan
6. Shadow Company: Mercenaries In The Modern World
7. World War II From Space
8. Why We Fight
9. The Fog Of War
10. The Oil Factor: Behind The War On Terror

[9] Economics:

Learn about the financial system works and how people and societies are enslaved through debt.

1. The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power
2. Overdose: The Next Financial Crisis
3. The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of The World
4. The One Percent
5. Quants: The Alchemists of Wall Street
6. The Last Days Of Lehman Brothers
7. The Four Horsemen
8. Inside Job: The Biggest Robbery In Human History
9. Capitalism A Love Story
10. Money and Life

[10] Digital Entrepreneurship:

Profiles of the entrepreneurs who used technology to change the world.

1. The Life Of A Young Entrepreneur
2. Profile: Google’s Larry Page and Sergey Brin
3. Profile: Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg
4. Starting-Up in America
5. The Biography of Bill Gates
6. Inside Google: The Billion Dollar Machine
7. Steve Jobs: One Last Thing
8 . Steve Jobs: The Billion Dollar Hippy
9. Elon Musk: Risk Takers
10. The Story of Twitter

[11] Sports:

Watch the inspiring stories of amazing athletes.

1. Fearless: The Jeb Corliss Story
2. Carts of Darkness
3. The Two Escobars
4. Usain Bolt: The World’s Fastest Man
5. Wayne Gretzky: The Life and Times
6. When We Were Kings
7. Mike Tyson: Beyond the Glory
8. Birdmen
9. The Legacy Of Michael Jordan
10. We Ride: The Story of Snowboarding

[12] Technology:

Find out more about the impact of exponential growth and the approaching Singularity.

1. Ray Kurzweil: The Transcendent Man
2. How Robots Will Change the World
3. Human 2.0
4. Tomorrow’s World: Life In The Future
5. Trance-Formation: The Future of Humanity
6. The Venus Project: Future By Design
7. Bionics, Transhumanism And The End Of Evolution
8. The Singularity Is Near
9. Car Technology Of The Future
10. Powering The Future: The Energy Revolution

[13] Origins of Religion:

Explore the original religious experience of mankind at the dawn of civilization.

1. Entheogen: Awakening the Divine Within
2. Manifesting the Mind: Footprints of the Shaman
3. Ancient Egypt and The Alternative Story of Mankind’s Origins
4. The Hidden Knowledge of the Supernatural
5. Re-Awaken: Open Your Heart, Expand Your Mind
6. Shamans of the Amazon
7. The Root of All Evil: The God Delusion
8. Ancient Knowledge
9. The Naked Truth
10. Before Babel: In Search of the First Language

[14] Western Religion:

The fascinating history of the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

1. Secret Quest: The Path of the Christian Gnostics
2. The Secret Gate of Eden
3. Forbidden Knowledge: Lost Secrets of the Bible
4. Banned From The Bible: Secrets Of The Apostles
5.  The Life of Prophet Muhammad
6. The Road To Armageddon
7. The Most Hated Family In America
8. Muhammad: The Legacy of a Prophet
9. A Complete History of God
10. Gnosis: The Untold History of the Bible

[15] Eastern Religion:

Expand your mind by also studying the entirely different religious worldviews of the East.

1. Inner Worlds, Outer Worlds
2. The Life Of The Buddha
3. The Seven Wonders of the Buddhist World
4. Mysteries of the Cosmic OM: Ancient Vedic Science
5. Where Science and Buddhism Meet
6. The Yogis of Tibet
7. Taj Mahal: Secrets To Blow Your Mind
8. Light at the Edge of the World: Tibetan Science of the Mind
9. Myths of Mankind: The Mahabharata
10. Ayurveda: The Art of Being

[16] Consciousness:

Learn about the basic unity of existence and the miracle of consciousness.

1. Athene’s Theory of Everything
2. Theory of Everything: GOD, Devils, Dimensions, Dragons & The Illusion of Reality
3. The God Within: Physics, Cosmology and Consciousness
4. 5 Gateways: The Five Key Expansions of Consciousness
5. Return to the Source: Philosophy and The Matrix
6. The Holographic Universe
7. DMT: The Spirit Molecule
8. What Is Consciousness?
9. Kymatica
10. Neuroplasticity: The Brain That Changes Itself

[17] Mysteries:

Indiana Jones-style explorations into the unsolved mysteries of the past.

1. Alchemy: Sacred Secrets Revealed
2. The Day Before Disclosure
3. The Pyramid Code
4. The Secret Design of the Egyptian Pyramids
5. Decoding the Past: Secrets of the Dollar Bill
6. The Lost Gods of Easter Island
7. Origins of the Da Vinci Code
8. Forbidden Knowledge: Ancient Medical Secrets
9. Secret Mysteries of America’s Beginnings: The New Atlantis
10. Secrets in Plain Sight

[18] Mass Culture:

Learn about how our thoughts and opinions are influenced by mass culture.

1. The Century of the Self
2. All Watched Over By Machines Of Loving Grace
3. The Power Of Nightmares
4. The Trap: What Happened To Our Dreams of Freedom
5. Starsuckers: A Culture Obsessed By Celebrity
6. Human Resources: Social Engineering in the 20th Century
7. Obey: The Death of the Liberal Class
8. Motivational Guru: The Story of Tony Robbins
9. Bob Marley: Freedom Road
10. Radiant City

[19] Corporate Media:

Discover how the mass media and advertisers channel our irrational impulses.

1. Weapons of Mass Deceptions
2. Secrets of the Superbrands
3. Orwell Rolls in his Grave
4. The Esoteric Agenda
5. Propaganda
6. The Myth of the Liberal Media: The Propaganda Model of News
7. Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media
8. Symbolism in Logos: Subliminal Messages or Ancient Archetypes
9. Edward Snowden: A Truth Unveiled
10. Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism

[20] Art and Literature:

Explore the lives of famous artists and how art opens people’s minds.

1. Lord Of The Rings: Facts Behind The Fiction
2. Cosm: Alex Gray’s Visionary Art
3. Banksy’s Exit Through The Gift Shop
4. New Art and the Young Artists Behind It
5. Salvador Dali: A Master of the Modern Era
6. How Art Made The World: More Human Than Human
7. The Day Pictures Were Born
8. Guns, Germs and Steel
9. Off-Book: Digital Age Creativity
10. This Is Modern Art

[21] Health:

Explore issues in health, how our bodies work and the incredible power of our brains.

1. The Human Brain
2. The Truth About Vitamins
3. How To Live To 101
4. America’s Obesity Epidemic
5. The War On Health
6. The Beautiful Truth
7. Food Inc.
8. The Truth About Food
9. Addicted To Pleasure: Sugar
10. The Living Matrix

[22] Drugs:

Documentaries on the effect of drugs — legal and illegal — on the body and mind.

1. The Union: The Business Behind Getting High
2. The Drugging Of Our Children
3. How Marijuana Affects Your Health
4. Making a Killing: The Untold Story of Psychotropic Drugging
5. Clearing the Smoke: The Science of Cannabis
6. LSD: The Beyond Within
7. The War on Drugs: The Prison Industrial Complex
8. Are Illegal Drugs More Dangerous Than Legal Drugs?
9. The Prescription Drug Abuse Epidemic
10. Run From The Cure: The Rick Simpson Story

[23] Environment:

Thought-provoking documentaries on the environmental movement and the growing threats to our biosphere.

1. Earthlings
2. Blue Gold: World Water Wars
3. Tapped
4. Shift: Beyond the Numbers of the Climate Crisis
5. All Things Are Connected
6. The Fight For Amazonia
7. Flow: For Love Of Water
8. Here Comes the Sun
9. The World According To Monsanto
10. The Story of Stuff

[24] Cosmos:

Expand your mind by exploring our indescribably large and beautiful Cosmos.

1. The Search for Planets Similar to Earth
2. Inside the Milky Way Galaxy
3. Cosmic Journeys : The Largest Black Holes in the Universe
4. Beyond The Big Bang
5. The Mystery of the Milky Way
6. Fractals: The Hidden Dimension
7. Into The Universe With Stephen Hawking: The Story of Everything
8. Pioneer Science: Discovering Deep Space
9. Carl Sagan’s Cosmos
10. The Strangest Things In The Universe

[25] Science:

The history of scientific discovery and how scientific instruments expand our perception.

1. The Complete History of Science
2. The Quantum Revolution
3. Secret Universe: The Hidden Life of the Cell
4. Stephen Hawking: A Brief History of Time
5. Quantum Mechanics: Fabric of the Cosmos
6. The Light Fantastic
7. DNA: The Secret of Life
8. Parallel Universes, Alternative Timelines & Multiverse
9. What Is The Higgs Boson?
10. Infinity

[26] Evolution:

The story of our evolution and the emergence of self-aware human beings.

1. The Origin of Life
2. Homo Sapiens: The Birth of Humanity
3. Beyond Me
4. The Global Brain
5. Metanoia: A New Vision of Nature
6. Birth Of A New Humanity
7. Samsara
8. Ape Man: Adventures in Human Evolution
9. The Incredible Human Journey
10. The Human Family Tree

[27] Psychology and The Brain:

New research is shining a spotlight on how we can improve our brains.

1. How Smart Can We Get?
2. The Science of Lust
3. The Secret You
4. What Are Dreams?
5. A Virus Called Fear
6. Beyond Thought (Awareness Itself)
7. The Human Brain
8. Superconscious Mind: How To Double Your Brain’s Performance
9. How Does Your Memory Work?
10. Secrets of the Mind

[28] Modern History:

The story of the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution and the rise of the modern world.

1. The Entrepreneurs Who Built America
2. History of the World in Two Hours
3. The Industrial Revolution
4. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
5. The Adventure of the English Language
6. The French Revolution
7. Big Sugar
8. The Spanish Inquisition
9. The American Revolution
10. The Mexican American War

[29] Pre-Modern History:

The story of the Americas and European history in the pre-modern world.

1. America Before Columbus
2. The Dark Ages
3. Socrates, Aristotle and Plato
4. The Medici: The Most Influencial Family In The World
5. Rome: The Rise And Fall Of An Empire
6. History of Britain: The Myth of the Anglo-Saxon Invasion
7.  A History of Celtic Britain
8. The Crusades: Victory and Defeat
9. The Vikings: Voyage To America
10. Copernicus and the Scientific Revolution

[30] Current Events:

Become more informed about current events that are shaping the world.

1. Syria: The Reckoning
2. Empire: Putin’s Russia
3. The New Arms Race
4. The Killing of Yasser Arafat
5. Egypt In Crisis
6. Inside Obama’s Presidency
7. The Untouchables: How Obama Protected Wall Street
8. Behind The Rhetoric: The Real Iran
9. A History of the Middle East since WWII
10. Climate Wars

[31] Ancient Civilizations:

Fascination explorations into the ancient civilizations of our past.

1. When God Was a Girl: When Goddesses Ruled The Heavens and Earth
2. The Persian Empire : Most Mysterious Civilization in the Ancient World
3. What The Ancients Did For Us
4. What the Ancients Knew
5. Egypt: Beyond the Pyramids
6. Secrets of the Ancient Empires
7. Constellations & Ancient Civilizations
8. Graham Hancock’s Quest For The Lost Civilization
9. Atlantis: The Lost Continent
10. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

I hope you enjoy watching some of these mind expanding documentaries! If you have a personal favorite, please share it with everyone in the comments.

Impaired recovery from inflammation linked to Alzheimer’s disease

2397

 

[PRESS RELEASE 14/01/2014] New research from Karolinska Institutet shows that the final stage of the normal inflammatory process may be disrupted in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. A study published in the journal Alzheimer’s & Dementia shows that levels in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of the molecules necessary for tissue recovery through the clearance of harmful inflammatory substances are lower than normal in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The study also showed association between the lower levels of these molecules with impaired memory function.

Marianne Schultzberg Photo: Bengt J Becker

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, eventually leading to neuronal death associated with an increasing degree of memory impairment. As with other neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s is characterised by an inflammatory process in the brain. Prolonged inflammation with the release of inflammatory and toxic substances can cause further damage and neuronal death. The inflammatory process normally ends in what is known as resolution. This is an active process regulated by certain molecules, so called specialized pro-resolving mediators, where the tissue is cleared from microorganisms, debris from dead cells via an uptake mechanism (phagocytosis), and where the release of growth factors stimulates tissue repair.

 

Together with colleagues in the United States, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now shown that the levels of resolution-regulating molecules in the brain and in the cerebrospinal fluid are lower in Alzheimer’s disease than normal. The researchers have also shown that the lower levels of these molecules correlate with a lower degree of cognitive function, that is, memory capacity. The results are based on analyses of cerebrospinal fluid from 15 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 21 control subjects. The researchers also analysed brain tissue from 10 Alzheimer’s patients and 10 control subjects.

 

“Our hypothesis is that stimulation of resolution of inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease may result in reduced neuronal death in the brain, and in turn have a beneficial effect in disease progression and cognition. This is an entirely new approach and provides the opportunity to develop new treatment principles for Alzheimer’s disease,” says Professor Marianne Schultzberg, who led the study at the Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society.

 

In ongoing studies, the researchers are now investigating how the pro-resolving molecules affect neuronal death in cell cultures, and whether treatment in animal experiments with these substances can prevent neurodegeneration and improve memory functions. The pro-resolving molecules identified so far are derivatives of omega-3 fatty acids, which constitute a popular food supple-ment that has been ascribed several health benefits, and have received attention for beneficial effects also on factors related to Alzheimer’s disease, in line with the new results described above. In previous studies, the researchers behind these new findings have shown that omega-3 also stimulates cells to take up amyloid-beta, a protein that kills neurons and occurs in the brain in the form of plaques in Alzheimer’s disease.

 

The research was funded with support, among others, from the Swedish Research Council, Swedish Brain Power, Stockholm Community Council, the Chinese Scholarship Council, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Stiftelsen för Gamla Tjänarinnor, Alzheimerfonden, the Gun and Bertil Stohne Foundation, the Petrus and Augusta Hedlund Foundation.